哒坪胎视界

王安 李开孟 武威 徐成彬 | 论工程评估及其知识特征
发布日期:2019-07-06 信息来源:哒坪胎 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

【摘要】工程评估是根据特定标准对工程活动所进行的价值审视。在实践中必须坚持第三方评估的主体地位,强调对工程未来前景的预见性研究,发挥架通微观和宏观的桥梁作用,强调战略规划及新发展理念的导向作用,优化工程价值及目标定位,审慎确定工程方案,关注持续影响效果,全面评估预期效益,科学应对工程风险,确保工程科学决策,实现工程预期效益。工程评估知识是围绕工程评估活动的属性和目的所形成的特有知识体系,涉及不同的专业领域,具有不同的表现形式,并处在持续演化的过程之中,需要加强工程评估知识属性及类型的研究,探讨工程评估知识的表现形式及演化规律,促进构建工程评估知识体系。

关键词:工程评估;工程决策;工程活动;工程知识

gongchenghuodongshirenleijianzaorengongwudewuzhixingshijianhuodong[1],gongchengjuecexuyaogongchengpinggutigongzhuanyeyiju。pinggushiduitedingshiwujinxingpanduan、fenxibingdechujielun。gongchengpinggushigenjutedingchiduhuobiaozhun,duigongchenghuodongsuojinxingdejiazhishenshi[2],jijuyouxiangduidulixingdepingguzhuanjiahuopinggujigou,quedinggongchengmubiaohegongnengdingwei,caiyonggengjiayouhuadegongchengtujing、gongchengcuoshihegongchengfangfa,congjishu、jingji、shehui、ziyuan、huanjingdengjiaodu,duixiangguanguihua、xiangmulunzhengwenjiansuokaizhandezaifenxilunzheng,weigongchengjuecehexiangmuguanlitigongyijudeyixiliezhilihuodong[3]。gongchengpingguzhishishizaigongchengpinggudegeleizhuanyehuodongzhong,pingguzhuanjiahuopinggujigousuocaiyongdebaokuogongchengmubiao、chanchushichang、gongchengsheji、jiansheshigong、yunyingweihu、chanpinchansheng、zuzhiyunxing、ziyuanhuanjing、jingjishehuidengneirongdepingguzhishitixi。gongchengpinggushigongchengxiangmushengmingzhouqizhongzhongyaoerdutedezhuanyehuodong,juedingzhegongchengpingguzhishideduteshuxingjiqitedingdeyanjinguilv,bingxingchengxiangduidulidezhishitixihebiaoxianxingshi。gongchengpingguzhishiduiyufengfugongchengpingguhuodongdezhuanyeneihan,tishenggongchengxiangmudeduoweijiazhijuyouzhongdayiyi。

一、工程评估的属性、类型及特征

woguodegongchengpingguhuodong,shibansuizhewoguojingjishehuidejinbuhejingjitizhidebiangecongwudaoyou、congxiaodaodafazhanqilaide,tebieshigongchengxiangmukexingxingyanjiuhexianpingguhoujuecezhidudejianliyushishi,shidegongchengpingguzaituijinwoguogongchengxiangmujueceminzhuhuakexuehuaguochengzhongfahuilezhongyaozuoyong。gongchengpinggutongguoyinruduoxuekezhuanyezhishi,kaizhangongchenghuodongduoyuanjiazhidepingjiayusuzao,jitishenglegongchenghuodongdezhengmianjiazhi,yeguibilegongchenghuodongdefumianzuoyong。youyugongchengpinggusheji“renyurenguanxi”he“renyushehuiguanxi”,yincilibukaipingguzhutidejiazhipanduanbiaozhunyijigongchengyouhuasuozhixiangdemubiao。

(一)工程评估的属性

gongchenghuodongzuoweiyizhongzhuanyexingwei,shiyunyongkexuezhishi、jishuzhishiyugongchengzhishi,zhuanhuaweixianshiderengongwushijie,zhizaihuodeshijianmudesuoqiwangdejishushezhi。gongchenghuodongshiyizhongkeyibeijiazhipingjiadehuodong[4]。jiuciyiyieryan,gongchengpinggudebenzhikeyilijieweiyijuyidingdejiazhitixi,duigongchenghuodongjinxingjiazhipanduanheyouhuadeguocheng。jutibaokuosangefangmiandehexinshuxing。

一是价值体系。工程的价值不是单一维度的,涉及技术、经济、社会、环境等多维角度,而且不同工程在这些维度上的具体要求又各有差异,既相互联系又相互区别,形成一个有机体系。对工程价值体系的认识决定了工程评估知识体系的构成。以我国改革开放以来工程评估实践为例,20世纪80年代主要强调技术与经济评估;90年代以后,市场、融资、财务等评估得到重视。进入新世纪,对工程活动的生态、资源、社会等方面的影响日益受到关注,特别是新时代关于经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明“五位一体”新发展理念的提出,进一步拓宽了工程评估的视野,成为开展工程评估工作的重要指南。

二是价值判断。工程评估需要对工程价值进行定量和定性的估计,以便根据特定的约束条件,对工程进行决策。工程价值判断的三个角度不可偏废。首先是对工程绝对价值的判断。所谓绝对价值,是指工程满足其对人类福祉的贡献程度,这既涉及工程自身目标的合理性,又涉及与其他相关工程的匹配关系。其次是对相对价值的判断,即基于设计功能目标,分析工程技术功能指标的完成情况和最终功能效果的实现情况,评估工程活动的投入产出效率,强调资源投入的优化配置。三是动态价值判断,主要分析工程价值在生命周期不同阶段的分布情况,从而对其与需求的匹配程度做出判断,评估工程的可持续性。

三是价值优化。哒坪胎工程评估从来不局限于被动地、静态地对工程活动进行估值,而是要主动地、动态地在估值的基础上,提出价值优化建议。价值优化一般表现为三种形式:一是价值增加,通过评估提出完善工程目标及其配套的工程关系,从而提高工程的绝对价值,更好地满足社会需求和公众利益;二是资源节约,即通过评估提出优化规划设计、工程技术和建设方案,从而避免资源浪费,提高投入产出效率;三是价值匹配,即通过评估提出改进工程实施的措施建议,确保工程产出与需求在时间、空间上实现更有效的匹配。虽然工程评估必须通过影响工程决策和工程设计才能最终转化为现实价值,但工程评估已经内化成为工程价值创造活动的重要源泉。

(二)工程评估的类型

gongchenghuodongquanshengmingzhouqidegegehuanjie,xuyaokaizhanyixiliegongchengpingguhuodong。zaigongchengjueceqiankaizhandepinggugongzuochengweiqianpinggu,zaigongchenghuodongqitahuanjiekaizhandepinggugongzuobaokuozhongqipingguhehoupinggudeng。qizhong,qianpingguzhuyaoweigongchengjuecetigongzhicheng,jutibiaoxianweixiangmujianyishuhuokexingxingyanjiudepinggu,yijichubushejihegongchenggaisuanpinggudengxingshi,shigongchengpingguzuichangjiandexingshi。zhongqipinggushizaigongchengshishiguochengzhong,duigongchengzhixingheshishiqianjingjinxingdejieduanxingpinggu,mudeshitongguoxitong、keguanfenxigongchengshishiqingkuang,wanshangongchengfangan,youhuahouxushishihuodong。houpinggushizaigongchengjianchengbingyunxingyiduanshijianhou,duigongchengmude、zhixingguocheng、xiaolv、xiaoguo、yingxianghekechixuxingsuojinxingdefenxipinggu,zhizaizongjiejingyanjiaoxun,gaijingongchengjuece。duiyuyunxingjieshudezhongdagongcheng,dangdizhengfuhuoxiangmushishijigoukegenjuxuyaoduigongchengyijiaohuotuiyifangankaizhanzhuanxiangpinggu[5],zheishigongchenghoupinggudeyizhongbiaoxianxingshi。

哒坪胎genjupingguneirongbutong,gongchengpinggukefenweizonghepingguhezhuantipingguliangdaleixing。zonghepinggushiduigongchengdejishu、jingji、huanjing、shehuidengfangmianjinxingquanfangweidepinggu[6];zhuantipingguzeshigenjujuecexuyao,duigongchenghuodongtedinghuanjie,tedingweidusuojinxingdezhuanmenpinggu,rufengxianpinggu、jishupinggu、jingjipinggu、shehuipinggudeng。

哒坪胎genjupinggumudebutong,gongchengpingguhaikeyifenweiyituidonggenghaoshixiangongchengmubiaodexingchengxingpinggu(formative evaluation)heyizongjiejingyanjiaoxunweizhuyaomudedezongjiexingpinggu(summative evaluation)。geleigongchengpinggusuiranjiaodubutong,mudegeyi,pinggufangfayecunzaiyidingchabie,danqisuozunxundezhishitixijuyouluojishangdezhengtiguanlianxing。

(三)工程评估的主要特征

gongchengpinggufuwuyugongchengjueceheshishigejieduandeliyixiangguanzhuti,qibiaoxianxingshiduozhongduoyang。xiangduiyugongchenghuodongshengmingzhouqigehuanjiedeqitahuodong,gongchengpinggujuyouyixiazhuyaotezheng。

1.评估主体的独立性

gongchengpinggushiyoujuyouxiangduidulixingdepingguzhuanjiahuojigousuokaizhandezhuanyezixunlunzhenghuodong,pingguhuodongxiangduiduliyugongchengguochengdeqitahuanjie。pinggubushiduigongchengfangandezaiguihua、zaisheji,ershicongdulidisanfangdeshijiao,duigongchengjiyoufanganjiqizhixingqingkuangdezaipingpanhezaiyouhua。yinci,pinggugongzuobixujuyoudulideshijiao,pinggugongzuodeshishizhutiyuqitahuanjiegongchenghuodongdezhutijuyoumingquedefenye。zaigongchengguihua、juece、zhixingdenghuanjiezhong,butongzhutijunxuyaoduigongchengjiazhijinxingbuduandizairenshi、zaifenxi,zaibutongchengdushangjieyonglegongchengpinggudezhishihefangfa,danzheixiehuodongyinqibenshenbujuyoudulixing,yincibunengshizhiweigongchengpingguhuodong。

2.评估对象的复合性

哒坪胎gongchengfangandeshixianlujingbingfeiweiyi,zaipingguhuodongzhongbukenengqiongjugezhonglujing,erbixuyikexingxingyanjiudenggongchenghuodongtichudeyouxianxuanzezuoweizhuyaoduixiangkaizhanpinggugongzuo,pinggudeduixiangshigongchengfangan。tongshi,pingguzuizhongyouyaofuwuyu“xingchengyigegengyoujiazhideshijie”,bunenghuibiduigongchengjiazhizuidahuadezhuiqiu。yinci,gongchengpinggubunengjuxianyujiyoufangan,haiyingduiqitakenengdegengyoulujingjinxingjieshishenzhishishenrulunzheng,pinggudeduixiangtongshiyouyaoweiraogongchengbenshenzhankai,yincizheishiyigebianzhengtongyideguanxi。

3.评估方法的系统性

suirangongchengpingguhuodongzaoqiqiyuanyudisanfangjingyanpanduan,danshisuizhelilunyanjiuyushijiantansuodebuduanfazhan,duipinggugongzuodexitongxingyaoqiuyuelaiyuegao,baokuoduipingguneirongdexitongxing、pinggujishudexitongxing、pinggujielundexitongxingdengyaoqiu。xitongxingyaoqiubuzhitixianzaiduipingguduixiangzhengti-jubuguanxidebawo,erqietixianzaijiangjishu、jingji、shehui、huanjingdengduoyuanshijiaoyoujinarupingguguocheng,congerduigongchengjiazhixingchengxitonghuaderenzhi。

4.评估标准的多元性

哒坪胎gongchengxiangmuwangwangxuyaomanzubutongliyixiangguanzhutidegezixuqiu。zheixieliyixiangguanzhutidexuqiushiduoyuande,gezijuyoubutongdeliyisuqiujijiazhiquxiang,tixianlebutongweidudejiazhipanduan。yinci,duigongchengjiazhidepanduanyuyouhuameiyoufangzhisihaierjiezhundebiaozhun,bixuyijutedinggongchengdecanyuzhutijinxingfenxi,zhongdianguanzhuzhengfubumen、shehuigongzhong、jinrongjigou、gongchengjianshe、yunyingweihudengbutongliyizhutijiazhisuqiudegongtongdian,tuoshanchulibutongzhutijiazhisuqiudechayixing,jiaqianggoutongxiediaoheleijigongshi,congershixiangongchengjiazhidezhengtizuiyou。

5.评估过程的动态性

哒坪胎zaigongchenghuodongshengmingzhouqidegegehuanjie,bansuizheshiqian、shizhong、shihoudengyixiliepingguhuodong,zheixiehuodongsuiranjuyouxiangduidulixing,danshitamenzhijianyouyouneizaideyoujilianxi,buduanfahuizhefankuikongzhizuoyong。gongchengpingguyuqitahuanjiegongchenghuodongdefanfuhudongguocheng,fanyingleduigongchengjiazhiderenshi、shijian、zairenshi、zaishijiandebianzhengguocheng,shirenshilunzaigongchengpingguhuodongzhongdezhongyaotixian。

6.评估依据的客观性

哒坪胎gongchengpinggusuoyijudeshujuziliaobixushikejianyandezhenshishujuhezhenshiqingkuang,duijianglaideyuceyebixuyilishiqingkuangjipinggushidiandexianshiqingkuangweijichu,pinggusuocaiyongdeshuju、ziliaojifangfa,qilaiyuan、zhenbie、jiagongdoubixujianchikexueyanjin、shishiqiushi,fouzejiuwufabaozhengpinggugongzuodezhiliang。

7.评估成果的反馈性

gongchengpinggudemudeshigaijinhewanshangongchengfanganjiqishishiguocheng。yaodadaozheigemude,bixujiangpinggudechengguojinxingyouxiaofankui。ruguobunengchongfenfankui,pinggudejiazhijiuwufashixian,pinggugongzuobenshenyejiushiqulezuoweigongchenghuodongshengmingzhouqizhongyaohuanjiedecunzaiyiyi。

二、工程评估知识属性与构成要素

(一)工程评估知识的属性及必要性

哒坪胎gongchengpingguzhishishirenleizaigongchengpinggushijianzhongrenshikeguanshijiedezhihuichengguo,shirenleiduigongchengpingguhuodongzhuanyezhishijinengdexitongxingrenzhi,shirenleigongchengpinggushijianhuodongdeninglianshenghuahetilianzongjie,shigongchengpinggujutigongzuodezhuanyezhinan,gongchengpingguzhishitixidegoujiankeyicongduofangweidufengfugongchengpingguhuodongdeneihan,bujinduigongchengpingguhuodongdexitongxinghequanjuxingjuyouzhidaoyiyi,duiyutishengpingguhuodongneizaidekexuexing、zhuanyexingjiluojixingchanshenghengaodejiazhi。gongchengpingguzhishidezhuanyeshuxingjuedingleqizaigongchengzhishitixigoujianzhongdeteshudiweijizuoyong。

1.工程评估知识的属性

genjugongchengpinggudebenzhihemubiao,weiraogongchengpingguhuodongjuyoudeshuxing、gongchengpingguhuodongdebutongleixingjigongchengpingguhuodongzhongsuochengxiandezhuyaotezheng,gongchengpinggujigouhuozhuanjiaduiyugongchengpingguhuodongguochengzhongshejidesuoyouyaosujinxingdejiazhipanduan、tichudeyouhuajianyixingchenglejuyouxitongxing、jichengxing、zhukeguanxiangjiehe、dongtaixingyuqianzhanyucexingdezhishitixi。

yishipingguzhishiyaosugouchengdexitongxing。wulungoujiangongchengjiazhitixi,haishiduigejiazhiyaosujinxinghuizongpingjia,douxuyaopingguzhishijuyougaodudexitongxing,yinghangaiyizhengtaobuduanwanshandepinggulinian、pinggulilun,pinggufangfahepinggucanshudengyaosugongtonggouchengdeyoujizhengti,zheixieyaosuzhijianjuyouqingxidecengcijiegoutezheng,baokuopinggulinian、pinggulilun、pinggufangfa、caozuoguifandengbutongcengcidezhishiyaosu,qizhongdepinggulinianshipingguzhishitixidehexin,chuyu“dingcengsheji”dediwei,duipinggulilun、pinggufangfa、caozuoguifandengzhishiyaosudexingchengjuyoujuedingxingdezhidaozuoyong。tongshi,butongcengcidepingguzhishiyaosuyoujuyouyanmidexianjiexing,xiangfuxiangcheng,tixianchuzhengtidegongnengtezheng。

ershipingguzhishiduolingyudejichengxing。suizherenleigongchengshijianhuodongdebuduanshenhua,yuelaiyueduodezhuanyezhishibeinarudaogongchengpingguhuodongzhizhong,gongchengpingguzhishiyuelaiyuetixianchukuaxueke、zonghexingdengtezheng。tongshi,gongchengpingguzhishidefazhanbuzhishikuaxuekezhishidejiandanzuhediejia,ershiduizheixiezhishijinxingfanfudexuanze-zhenghe-jicheng-jiangou,bingzaishijianzhongjiayiyunyonghefankuiyouhua,shiqichengxianchuxianghuronghedetaishi,chengweipingguzhishibukefengedeyoujizuchengbufen。

哒坪胎sanshikeguanyuzhuguanxiangjiehe。suiranzaicaozuocengmian,gongchengpingguqiangdiaoyikeguanshishiweijichu,caiyongjingjianyanzhengmingkekaodekeguanxingfangfa,danbingbukenengjiangzhuguanxingwanquanpaichuzaiwai。jiuqiyuanyin,yifangmiangongchengpinggudebenzhishijiazhipanduan,erduijiazhiderenshibukenengwanquantuolizhuguanyinsu,tebieshigongchengxiangguanliyiquntidezhuguanyinsu,lirunijiangongchengsuozaidiqutedingdeminzuzongjiao、wenhuaxisudoukenengduigongchengfanganchanshengyingxiang;lingyifangmian,pingguduoweidujiazhiyaosudezhenghe,yexuyaopingguzhutijinxingzhuguanqushe,liruduizhongdagongchengshengtaihuanjingyingxiangjishengwuduoyangxingbaohudequshewenti。

哒坪胎sishidongtaixingyuqianzhanyucexing。gongchengpingguhuodongjiyaopanduannijiangongchengdejiazhixianzhuang,tongshigengweizhongyaodeshihaiyaopanduannijiangongchengdeweilaijiazhi。youyugongchengweilaizhuangtaijuyoubuquedingxing,xuyaozaiyidingqiantixiazuochuhelituiduan,bingxuyaoxiangyingdepingguzhishijifangfalunzhichi。tongshi,gongchengpinggushibansuinijiangongchengshengmingzhouqidongtaituijindeguocheng,yuzhixiangyingdi,gongchengpingguzhishiyeyingbaohanyixilieweiraogongchengxuanzhi、juece、guihua、sheji、shishierdongtaituijindepingguzhishigouchengyaosu。

2.从知识视角研究工程评估的必要性

哒坪胎gongchenghuodongshizuichangjian、zuijichu、yingxiangzuishenyuandeshehuihuodong,shirenleishehuicunzaihefazhandezhongyaojichu。gongchengpinggushiweigongchengjuecetigongzhuanyeyijudezhilihuodong,yugongchengguihua、gongchengsheji、gongchengshishidenghuodonggongtonggouchenggongchengxiangmushoumingzhouqidexiliehuodong,qiexianghuyingxianghezuoyong。gongchenghuodongzuoweirenleihuodebingbuduanfazhanxianshishengchanlideshijianxingchuangzaohuodong,duirenleishehuideshengcun、fanyanhetuidongrenleishehuijinbujuyoujuedingxingyingxiangzuoyong,gongchengzhiliangchengweihenglianggongchenghuodongshifouchenggongdeguanjianpingjiabiaozhun。“zairenleiwenmingyanbian、fazhanguochengzhongchuxianlegeleidegongchenghuodong:gongchenghuodongguochengdeyibanbiaoshuyingshibaokuoquelizhengquedegongchenglinianheyixiliejuece、sheji、goujianheyunxing、zhizao、guanlidenghuodongdeguocheng,qijieguowangwangjutiditixianweitedingxingshidexindecunzaiwujiqixiangguanderengongchanpinhuomouzhongfuwu”[2]。xiandaishehuicunzaigejutesedegongchenghuodong,qiecanyuzhutizhongduo、yingxiangyinsufuza、mubiaosuqiuduoyuan,tishenggongchengzhiliangyouqishigongchengjuecezhiliangmianlingengjiafuzadetiaozhan,keguanshangxuyaozhuanyezhishidezhidao。gongchengpingguzhishitixidegoujianjiqizaigongchengpinggushijianhuodongzhongdeyindaozuoyong,duiyucujinkexuejuecehetigaogongchengzhiliangdezuoyongyujiazhongyao。

哒坪胎gongchengzhishishiyugongchenghuodongxiangguandegezhongzhishi。gongchengpinggushigongchengxiangmuzhouqidejuecehuanjie,duigongchengfanganjinxingpinggudezhuanyexinghuodong。gongchengpingguzhishijiushishejigongchengpingguhuodongdegezhongzhishi。gongchengpingguzhishijuyouzhuguannengdongxinghechuangzaoxing,juyoujiazhixinghegongxiaoliyixing,zheijiushidegongchengpingguzhishiduiyuyindaokexuejuece、tishenggongchengzhiliangdejiazhigongneng,congershidecongzhishishijiaoyanjiugongchengpinggudebiyaoxingjiqiteshushijianjiazhi。

(二)工程评估知识的构成要素

gongchenghuodonggongchengpinggudebenzhishiduigongchenghuodongjinxingjiazhipanduanhejiazhiyouhua,gongchengpingguzhishiweiraoshixianzheiyimubiaoerzhankai,shiduirengongwuzhizaoheshiyongzhishidezhonggouyouhua。gongchengpingguzhishizhuyaoshejicongchouxianghejuticengmianshibiegongchengjiazhitixidezhishi,pingjiagejiazhiyaosushuipingdezhishi,quedinggongchengzhengtijiazhidezhishi,yijicongpinggujiaodutichugongchengjiazhiyouhuadezhishi。

1.需要构建工程价值体系的知识

gongchengpinggubixuzhongshiduigongchengjiazhidexitongxingrenzhi,zheizhongduijiazhitixigouchengjigejiazhiyaosuxianghuguanxiderenshi,xingchenggongchengpinggudejiazhikuangjia,shigoujiangongchengpingguzhishitixidezhongyaoluojiyiju。

哒坪胎gongchengpinggujiazhikuangjiayousigecengmianzhishizucheng:yishigongchengtourudepingguzhishi,jiweishishigongchengertourudegezhongyouxing、wuxingziyuandeshidangxingjiazhipanduanzhishi;ershigongchengchanchuxiaolvdepingguzhishi,jitongguogongchenghuodongzhijiechanchudeyouxingshiwuhuowuxingfuwudexiaolvjiazhipanduanzhishi;sanshiduigongchengzhijiemudeshixianchengdujinxingpingguheguanlidezhishi,ruduigongchenghuodongxiwangdadaodezhijiemubiaodexiaoguojiazhijinxingpanduandezhishi;sishiduigongchenghongguanmubiaoshixianchengdujinxingpingguheguanlidezhishi,rutongguogongchengdeshishisuoyinfadeyingxiangjiazhijinxingpanduandezhishi。zheisigefangmiandejiazhipanduanzhishibushijingtaibubiande,haixuyaokaoliangzaijiaozhangshijianneidegongchengjiazhidongtaiyanhuaqingkuang,tebieyaocongkechixufazhandejiaodu,jinxingquanshengmingzhouqidedongtaijiazhirenshi[7]。zheixiegongchengjiazhiyaosuzhijianjixianghulianxiyouxianghuduli,wangwangxuyaocongren-ziran-jingji-shehuixitongyoujitongyidejiaodujinxingzonghejiazhipanduan。

2.需要分析工程价值要素的知识

zaijidingdejiazhikuangjiajichushang,gongchengpingguxuyaozhongdianhuidawugefangmiandewenti,yishigongchengtourudeshidangxing,jigongchengtouruxiangduiyushixiangongchengmubiaoshifoushidang;ershixiaolv,jigongchengtouruzhuanhuanweigongchengyuqichengguohuoxianshigongchengchanchudexiaolvshifouheli;sanshixiaoguo,jigongchenghuodongzhijiemudedeshixianqingkuang;sishiyingxiang,jigongchenghuodonghongguanmubiaodeshixianqingkuang;wushikechixuxing,jizaigongchenghuodongdeshengmingzhouqiguochengzhong,gongchengtouru、chanchu、xiaolv、xiaoguo、yingxiangdedongtaibianhuajikechixuqingkuang。

gongchengdeshidangxingzhishizhuyaozhigongchengmubiao、gongchengfanganjijueceguochengdehelixing、heguixingdepanduanyijuhebiaozhun,shejihongguan、zhongguanyuweiguansangecengci。hongguancengciyingzhongdianguanzhugongchenghuodongshifoufuhezhengtizhanlveguihuaheshehuixuqiu;zhongguancengcizhuyaopinggugongchenghuodongshifoufuhechanyejiquyuhuanjingtiaojian;weiguancengciyingguanzhugongchenglixiang、juecedengchengxushifoufuhefalvfaguiheguanlizhidudengfangmiandeyaoqiu。

gongchengxiaolvzhishishiyanjiugongchengtouruziyuanjiqichanchudechanpinhuofuwuzhijianguanxijiqihengliangbiaozhundexiangguanzhishi。xiaolvpinggudemubiaoshiquedinggongchenghuodongnengfouyijiaodideziyuantourushixianyuqidegongchengchanchu,baokuoduitouruwuhechanchuwudedingxinghedingliangfenxibijiao,pinggugongchenghuodongdeziyuanyouhuapeizhixiaolvjigongchengguanlixiaolv。

哒坪胎gongchengxiaoguozhishishihenglianggongchengchanchuyuqikenengdailaidezhijiejieguojiqikeshixianchengdudepanduanzhishi。pingguxiaoguodejibenluojishiguiyin,jiguancedaodegaibianzaiduodachengdushangguiyinyunijiangongchenghuodong,pinggugongchenghuodongsuochanshengdezhijiexiaoguo。zaigongchengpinggudejutishijianhuodongzhong,shouzhiyupinggushijiandengyinsudexianzhi,xiaoguopinggugengduodiqiangdiaozheizhongyinguoguanxicunzaidekenengxingyijizaiduodachengdushangnenggouyingxianggongchengjiazhijigongchengmubiaodeshixian。

gongchengyingxiangzhishishiguanzhugongchenghuodongdeshishiduijingjishehuishengtaidenggengdacengmiansuochanshengdewaibuxingzuoyongderenzhi,baokuozheileiyingxiangdelingyufanwei、guangdushenduyijichijiuxing。gongchenghuodongsuochanshengdeyingxiang,wangwangzhongdianguanzhujianjieyingxiang。tedinglingyudeyingxiangjieguo,wangwanghuishizhongduoyaosugongtongzuoyongdejieguo,nijiangongchengjinduigaileiyingxiangzuochuyidingerfeiquanbudegongxian,bunengjiangqiyingxiangjieguoquanmianguiyinyunijiangongcheng。yingxiangpingguzhishiyingguanzhulianggefangmian,yishipanduanyingxiangdefanwei,jiquedingjiangnaxieyingxiangnarudaogongchengpinggudefenxifanwei;ershiquedingyingxiangdechengdu,tongshiduiyingxiangdechanshengyuanyinyuyiguanzhu。gongchenghuodongsuochanshengdeyingxiangchengxianduofangmian、duocengcidetezheng,wangwanghennanyongdanyizhishiquanmiangaikuo,yinciyaoqiangdiaopingguneirongyupingguxinxiyuqiyongtudeyizhixing。

gongchengkechixuxingdezhishiyaosushejipinggugongchengzaiyidingdejingjishehuihuanjingtiaojianxiashixianzhangqikechixuziwofazhanyuziwowanshandetiaojianhekexingxing,yizuochuqushixingyucehepinggu。kechixuxingpingguyingjiyuduiweilaifazhanqushideyuce,tongshiyeyaoguanzhuduijingjishehui、gongchengzhuti、mubiaoquntikechixufahuizuoyongdenenglijianshe,fenxiangpinggunijiangongchengdetouru、chanchu、xiaoguo、yingxiangdekechixuxing。

3.需要形成价值综合评价的知识

哒坪胎zaiduigongchenghuodongdeshidangxing、xiaolv、xiaoguo、yingxianghekechixuxingjinxingfenxipinggudejichushang,yingxitongguinapingguguandian,duigongchengfanganjinxingzhengtipanduan,xingchengduigongchengjiazhidezhengtixingpinggujielun。pinggusuoshejideshidangxing、xiaolv、xiaoguo、yingxianghekechixuxingdouyougezidehenduojutipingguzhibiao,zaixingchengzongtipingguyijianshixuyaoduigexiangzimubiaodezhongyaoxingjiayipanduan,congerzonghexingchengpingguzongtiyijian,bingfankuidaozhixingzhutijigeliyixiangguanzhe,jinxingfankuihexiuzheng,congershixiangongchengfangandedongtaiyouhua。suoyouzheixiehuodongjunxuyaoxiangguanzhuanyezhishidezhicheng。

4.xuyaotichujiazhiyouhuajianyidezhishi

gongchengpingguyingtongguoyuqitagongchengdehengxiang、zongxiangbijiao,jiehepingguzhuanjiadejingyanjizhishijilei,panduangongchengjiazhijinyibuyouhuadekenengxing,congertuidonggongchengjiazhidejinyibutisheng。gongchengpingguduigongchengjiazhideyouhuazhishiyingyongyingqubieyugongchengguihuahesheji。gongchengpingguyigongchengfanganweijichu,tongguoduigongchenghuodongsuobaohandeyixiliejiazhiyaosujinxingzongheyouhualaishixian,ruzaiwuzhijiazhiyushehuijiazhizhijiandeyouhua,zaijinqijiazhiyuyuanqijiazhizhijiandeyouhuadeng,zheishigongchengpingguzhishizongheyingyongdezhongyaotixian,yeshigongchengpingguhuodongchuangzaogongchengjiazhidezhongyaotixian。

(三)工程评估需要的专业知识

哒坪胎gongchengpingguzhishidexingchengheyingyongxuyaozunxunmingquedemubiao,tongguochuangzaoxingdejishugousi、fanganshejidengjieduan,cujinzirankexuexiangshengchanlizhuanhua[8]。gongchengpingguduixiangdewuzhixingtezheng,shidegongchengpingguzhishichangchangyi“wuhua”deshitipanduanercunzai,zhuyaobaohangongchengmubiaojijianshebiyaoxingpinggu、jishufanganpinggu、gongchengfanganpinggu、shebeifanganpinggujigongchengjiansheguilvdengfangmianjinxingpinggudezhuanyezhishi。

1.工程目标及建设必要性的评估知识

哒坪胎zaigongchengpingguzhong,zaiguihuabeijing、chanyezhengcejixingyezhunrufenxidejichushang,xuyaoduinijiangongchengyuqidadaodemubiaoyijijianshedebiyaoxingjinxingzongtifenxihepinggulunzheng。

anzhaoqixianhuafen,gongchengjianshemubiaobaokuozhanlvemubiao、jieduanmubiaohejinqimubiao,qizhongzhanlvemubiaodepingguzhishishejiguominjingjiheshehuifazhanhongguanhuanjingyijitouzizhutidezhanlveyitudengyinsu,jucipanduanxiangmuzaihongguanhuozhangyuanmubiaozhongdediweihezuoyong。anzhaopingguneironghuafen,gongchengjianshemubiaobaokuojishumubiao、jingjimubiao、huanjingmubiao、shehuimubiaodeng,xuyaopinggujutifanganyouliejiqiyouhuajianyi。

哒坪胎gongchengjianshebiyaoxingpinggu,yingduinijiangongchengshifoufuhexianxingguihuahezhengcedezongtiyaoqiu,gongchenghuodongshifouyibeinaruxiangguanjiansheguihua,yugongchengsuozaidiqufazhanguihua、guotukongjianguihua、quyuguihuajixiangguanzhuanxiangguihuadexianjieqingkuangdengtichupinggujielun。

2.技术方案的评估知识

哒坪胎jishufanganzhuyaozhishengchanfangfa、gongyiliucheng、jishuluxianxuanzedeng。jishufanganshihenglianggongchengjishuhegongyishuipingdebiaozhi,wangwangjuedingnijiangongchengdehelixinghekexingxing。jishufangandepinggu,xuyaopanduanshifoumanzuxianjinxing、shiyongxing、kekaoxing、anquanxing、jingjihelixingyaoqiudengfangmiandezhishi。shengchanfangfapingguyingpanduanyuxiangmugongnengyouguandegezhongshengchanfangfa,pinggushifoufuhejienenghuanbaoyaoqiu、jishulaiyuandekedexingdengfangmiandezhishi。gongyiliuchenghejishuluxianfanganpingguyingjubeiyanjiugongyiliuchengduixiangmugongnengdebaozhengchengdu、gehuanjiezhijianxianjiedehelixing、zhuyaoyunxingcanshudewendingxingdengfangmiandezhuanyezhishi。

3.工程方案的评估知识

gongchengfanganpinggushizaigongchengjiansheguimohejishufanganquedingdejichushang,zunxunshiyong、jingji、meiguandengyuanze,pinggugongchengjianzaofangan,baokuogongchengbiaozhunguifan、gongchengjiegou、waiguanxingshihefenggeyijigongchengliangjiqixiangguanzhishi。

gongchengfanganpingguzhishideyingyongyingnengtixiannijiangongchengxiangmudexingzhihetedian。ruyibanminyongjianzhudegongchengfanganpinggu,yingbaokuojianzhuwuxingshi、tiliang、jiegou、zhuangshidengzhishideyingyong;tielugongchengfanganpinggushejixianlu、luji、guidao、qiaohan、suidao、zhanchangyijitongxunxinhaodengzhuanyezhishi;shuilishuidiangongchengfanganzhuyaopinggushuniubuju、shuibashuikuxuanxingherongliang、fanghongchulaogongchengyijishubiandiangongchengdeng,youqixuyaojubeiyanjiushuikuyanmeiyiminanzhifangandezhuanyezhishi。

4.设备方案的评估知识

哒坪胎shebeifanganpinggushizaijishufanganpinggudejichushang,duigongchengsuoxushebeideshuliang、xingneng、laiyuan、jiagedengjinxingyanjiu,tichubixuanjiyouhuafangan,zhuyaobixuangezhongshebeifanganjishuxingnengchengshuxing、zhiliangkekaoxing、jianxiuweixiubianlixing、shebeizaojiajijingjihelixingdeng,xuyaoxiangyingdezhishizhichi。

5.工程建设规律的认知

哒坪胎gongchengpinggubixuzhongshiyanjiugongchengjianshelingyudezhongyaoguilv,rutouziyuxiaofeideguanxi、touziduijingjizengzhangdeladongzuoyong,ruhequebaogongchengjianshedegaozhiliangfazhan,ruhexiediaojingjishehuifazhanyurenkou、ziyuan、huanjingzhijiandeguanxi,ruheyouxiaoguibijingwaitouzigongchengjianshedeguobiefengxiandeng。tongguoduigongchengjiansheguilvxingzhishideshenruyanjiu,duigongchengjianshesuoshejidezhongdian、redian、nandianwentitigongyoujiazhidezixunpinggujianyi。

三、工程评估知识的表现形式及演化

(一)工程评估知识的表现形式

1.工程项目周期不同阶段的评估知识表现

哒坪胎conggongchenghuodongquanshengmingzhouqidejiaodukan,gongchengpingguzhishideneihanbaokuo“gongchengjuece—gongchengguihua—gongchengsheji—gongchengjiangou—gongchengyunying—gongchenggenzongpingjia—gongchengtuiyi”dengjieduanpinggugongzuosuoxuyaodezhuanyezhishijicheng[9]。

哒坪胎weijianmingzhijian,gongchengxiangmuzhouqikehuafenweijuecejieduan、zhunbeijieduan、shishijieduanheyunyingweihudengsigezhuyaojieduan[10]。gongchengxiangmuzhouqibutongjieduanpingguduixiangtixianweibutongmudedexiangmuwenjian,junxuyaopingguzhuanjiahuopinggujigouzaidiaochayanjiudejichushang,zongheyunyongzhangqijileidezhuanyezhishiheshijianjingyan,caiyongkexuedelunzhengfangfa,xingchengjuyouneizailuojidezhuanyepinggubaogaohuojianyi。

gongchengxiangmujuecejieduan,pingguzhishiwenjianzhuyaotixianweixiangmujianyishu、kexingxingyanjiubaogaodengqianqiwenjiandepinggubaogao,zhongdianshipinggulunzhengxiangmutouzijianshedebiyaoxinghekexingxing,weigongchengjuecetigongzhuanyezhicheng。

哒坪胎gongchengxiangmuzhunbeijieduan,pingguzhishiwenjianzhuyaotixianweikaigongqiandegexiangzhunbeiwenjian,ruchubusheji、shigongtushejideshencha,yijijiansheguihuaxukezheng、jiansheyongdishiyongquanzhengdengwaibuyueshutiaojiandepingguwenjian,weigongchengkaigongjianshedaxiajichu。

gongchengxiangmushishijieduan,pingguzhishiwenjianzhuyaotixianweigongchengshiwuxingtaixingchengguochengzhongdegeleijiancepingguchengguo,pinggudezhongdianshigongchengjianshetouzi、jindu、zhiliang、anquandengmubiaodekongzhiqingkuang,weixiangmushitijianshetigonggenzongguanlideyiju。

哒坪胎gongchengxiangmuyunyingweihujieduan,pingguzhishiwenjianbiaoxianweitouzijiansheguochengdezongjiepingjia、yunyingjixiaopingjia、xiangmuquanguochenggenzongjihoupingjiadengbaogao,pinggudezhongdianshijingyanzongjie、faxianwentihechixugaijin,weigongchengkechixuyunyingtigongjianyi。

zaigongchengxiangmuzhouqisigejieduandepingguhuodongzhong,qianqijieduandepingguyouweizhongyao,shigongchengjuecedezhijiecankaoyiju。zuoweiqianqipingguzhishizaitidexiangguanzhuanyewenjiandebianxie,yingzuodaoguandianmingque、zhongdiantuchu、luojixingqiang,nenggouhuidagongchengjuecesuoguanzhudegeleiwenti。duiyugaoduzhuanyehuawentidechanshu,yingliqiushenruqianchu、tongsuyidong;duiguanjianneirongyizhongdianfenxi,yiliyugongchengjuecerenyuanzhunquelijiehebawo。

2.工程评估理念创新的评估知识表现

gongchengpinggulinianshigongchengpingguzhishidehexinneihanzhiyi,zhiyingongchengxiangmuzhouqibutongjieduanpinggugongzuo。gongchengpinggulinianxuyaocongjingji、zhengzhi、wenhua、shehui、shengtaiwenmingdengbutongweidu,tongchoutuijingongchengxiangmuluoshixinfazhanliniandezhanlvemubiao,shigongchengpinggujutihuodongdezongtiyaoqiuhexingdongzhinan。

yishicongtigaotouzixiaoyi、guibitouzifengxiandejiaoduchufa,guancheguojiaxiangguanchanyezhengcehefazhanguihua,gengjiazhuzhongshichangdeshenrufenxi、jishufangandexianjinshiyongxingpinggu,youhuachanye、chanpinjiegou,cujinwuzhiwenmingjianshe。

哒坪胎ershicongyirenminweizhongxindejiaoduchufa,jianchiminzhujuece,weihufeiziyuanyimin、pinkunrenkou、funvertong、shaoshuminzudengruoshiquntidehefaquanyi,kaizhancanyushipinggu,tixianrenminyizhi、jifarenminchuangzaohuoli,guanzhuduoyuanhuahelisuqiu,cujinzhengzhiwenmingjianshe。

sanshiconggaozhiliangfazhandejiaoduchufa,guanzhugongchengjiansheduisuoshejirenqundeshenghuo、shengchan、sixiang、wenhua、jiaoyudengfangmiansuochanshengdeyingxiang,gaishandangdikejiwenhuahejiaoyupeixundengtiaojian,tigaozizhuchuangxinnengli,cujinjingshenwenmingjianshe。

sishiconggongpingzhengyidejiaoduchufa,zhongshigongchengxiangmushehuipingjiaheshehuiwendingfengxianpinggu,jiaqianghechuangxinshehuizhili,zaifazhanzhongbuqiminshengduanban,shirenminqunzhongdehuodegan、xingfugan、anquangangengjiachongshi、gengyoubaozhang,cujinshehuiwenmingjianshe。

哒坪胎wushicongkechixufazhandejiaoduchufa,jianxinglvshuiqingshanjiushijinshanyinshandefazhanlinian,tongchoukaolvgongchengjianshezhongdeziyuan、nengyuanjieyueyuzongheliyongyijishengtaihuanjingchengzailipinggudengyinsu,fazhanlvsejingjihexunhuanjingji,cujinshengtaiwenmingjianshe。

3.体现不同价值形式的工程评估知识表现

gongchengpinggushiduigongchengjiazhidezairenshihezaipanduan,shejidaoduogeshijiaohebutongweidudezhuanyezhishi,qijiazhiliniantixianweiyigongchengshitiweigenben、yihuobijiliangweizhibiaoheyirenminweizhongxindengbiaoxianxingshi。

(1)yigongchengshitiweigenbendejishujiazhi。zirankexuezhishishitongguosiweiduizirancunzaidefanying,juyou“miaoshuxingde”(descriptive)tezheng;jishuzhishijuyou“guifanxingde”(normative)huo“xingdongxingde”(conductive)tezheng。zirankexuezhishibenzhishangshi“jishuxingde”;jishuzhishishiguanniande、kelilunhuadezhishi,yiguizexingtaichengxian,jiguifanrenmendexingdong,zhidaorenmendejishuxingdong,qipanduanbiaozhunwei“youxiaoxing”[11]。gongchengpingguzhishiduigongchengjiazhidepanduansuirantixianweiduoweitezheng,danlibukaigongchengshitibenshensuotixiandejishujiazhi,zheishiduigongchenghuodongyiqiejiazhipanduandejichuheqianti,zhuyaogongzuoshiduigongchengjishufangandepinggu,zheishiyigebaohanchanpin、jishuheshichangdengzhongduoyinsudefuzaguocheng,tongguojishufangandegoujianhuozhonggou,bagongcheng“mubiaozhuanhuajishu”huoqianruchanpin,xingchengmanzuzhiliangyaoqiudeshiti,zaigongchengjianshehuoshichangxiaoshouzhongshixianjishujiazhi。congchunjishujiaoduduigongchengshitijinxingpinggu,tixianchujishujiaodudejiazhisiweihedaiyouzhuanyejishuxingtezhengdejiazhilinian。

(2)yihuobijiliangweizhibiaodejingjijiazhi。lishiheshijianzhengming,danchundezhengfuhuoshichangmoshidoubuzuyitigongjingjiyunxingdelixianghuazhidukuangjia。congzhishilunshijiaoyanjiuzhengfuyushichangguanxi,keyiyouxiaodijiangliangzheguanxidejiedingyoujiazhiqushewentizhuanhuancheng“zhengfuyushichangdehuoquzhishinengli”deshishiwenti,tishenglezhengfuyushichangguanxililundekexuexing。congjingjisiweidejiaoduduigongchengtouruhechanchujinxingpinggu,yihuobidanweizuoweijiliangchidu,duigongchengfangandetouzi、chengben、shuishou、lirundengzhijiechengbenheshouyi,yijiduigongchenghuodongdewaibujingjixinghewaibubujingjixingjinxinghuobilianghuafenxi,pinggunijiangongchengdecaiwujiazhihejingjijiazhi,duiqitouruchanchuxiaolvjiquyujingji、chanyefazhanjihongguanjingjijiazhijinxingpanduan,tixianchujingjijiaodudejiazhisiweiheguanzhujingjilibitezhengdejiazhiguan。

(3)yirenminweizhongxindeshehuijiazhi。gongchengjianshedechufadianheguisudianyingtixianyirenweibendelinian,gongchengpingguzhishixuyaotupo“getizhishilun”,yingkaolvrende“shehuizhishilun”,jijiangrenzuoweiyigewanzhengdegeti,tongguogongchengjianshetuozhanrendeziyoukongjian,tuidongshixianrendeshehuijiazhi。“rendebenzhibushidangerensuoguyoudechouxiangwu,zaiqixianshixingshang,tashiyiqieshehuiguanxidezonghe。”rendequanmianfazhanshiduocengcide,bujinbiaoxianzaigongchengshijianhuodongdequanmianfazhan,yebiaoxianzairendeshehuiguanxi、shejiaonenglihegerensuzhidengfangmian。congren–jishu–jingji–shehuidexitongjiaoduduigongchenghuodongderenwenjiazhijishehuiyingxiangxiaoguojinxingpinggu,qiangdiaogongchengbixujianchiyirenminweizhongxindefazhanlinian,tixianchushehuihexiedejiazhisiweiheyirenweibendejiazhiguan。

(二)工程评估知识的演化

哒坪胎zongguanrenleigongchengdefazhanshi,pingguzhishishiyigebuduanyanhuadeguocheng。xiangduiyugongchenghuodongshengmingzhouqideqitahuanjie,gongchengpingguzuoweiyixiangjuyoudulixingdezhuanyehuodong,suiranchanshengxiangduijiaowan,dantongguodaliangshijian,gongchengpinggudezhishitixideyikuaisufazhan,bingchengxianjiaoweiqingxideyanjinguilv。

1.评估知识“个性”日趋鲜明

gongchengpingguhuodongshiconggongchengshejiyuzhixingguochengzhongfenhuachulaide,dansuizhepinggushijiandetuijin,gongchengpinggufazhanchuleyixiliezhuanmendejishuhefangfa。zheixiechengguoshigongchengpinggujinyibudulichulai。zaoqidepinggushijianjuyoujiqiangdemohujingyanxingtezheng,zheizhongpingguhuodongshizhishangshiyouqitacongshigongchengsheji、shigongzuzhiderenyuan,yituoqizhishihejinengduigongchengqianjingjinxingyuceyupanduan,suoyituodezhishi、fangfazhuyaolaiziqitagongchenghuanjie。suizheshijiandebuduanshenru,gongchengpingguzhububaituoleyikaojingyanheleibimonidesiweikuangjia,xingchengleduliyugongchengshejiyushishidezhishitixi,ruguojizixungongchengshilianhehui—feidike(fidic)zuzhifabude《gongchengzixunyezhiliangguanlizhinan》、zhongguogongchengzixunxiehuizuzhibianxiedezixungongchengshi(touzi)zhiyeshuipingkaoshijiaocaideng。gongchengpingguyuxiangmukexingxingyanjiu、guihuasheji、gongchengshigongdenghuanjiechengxianchu“ruijiao”guanxi,liangzhecongbutonglizudianchufa,fuwugongtongdemubiao。suizhexinxijishudefazhanjigongchengzhishitixidebuduanwanshan,renmenduigongchengjiazhiderenshigengjiashenru,gongchengpinggulilunhefangfatixibuduandeyichuangxin,zhishitixidedulixingjinyibuzhangxian,gongchengpinggu“jianweizhizhu”denengligengjiatuxian,gongchengpinggudezhongyaodiweihezuoyonggengjiatuchu。

2.评估知识范围不断拓展

哒坪胎renleirenshigongchengjiazhideshiyebuduanjinhua,gongchengpinggudeshiyeyexiangyingdibuduantuozhan。guojishang,zuichudegongchengpinggugengduojuxianyujishu、xiaoyicengmian,zhuyaoshiduinijiangongchengdejishuqianjing、caiwuxiaoyijinxingyuce,erhouzhujianjiangjingji、shehui、ziyuan、huanjingdengyinsuyinrupingguzhishitixi,zheizhongyinrushouxianzaihengxiangshangtuozhanlegongchengpingguzhishidefanwei,tongshisuizheduigongchengbenzhirenshidetuozhan,xiangguanzhishizaizongxiangshangyeriyideyishenhua。suizhequanqiukechixufazhanmubiaogongshidexingchenghetuozhan,qihoubianhua、xingbiepingdeng、shengwuduoyangxing、renxingchengshi、shequzhilidengkechixufazhanmubiao(sdgs)riyibeinarugongchengpingguzhishidefanchou,qixiangguanneirongchengweigongchengpingguzhishitixidezhongyaozuchengbufen。

3.评估知识的“社会性”因素受到重视

zaoqidepingguzhishizhuyaoweiraogongchengjishu、gongchengkexuedengrenyuziranguanxi、renyurengongwuguanxizhankai。suizherenleiduigongchengrenshidebuduanshenhua,gongchenghuodongdeshehuixingyinsuriyiyinqizhongshi。“renyushehuiguanxi”“renyurenguanxi”chengweigongchengpingguxuyaoguanzhudezhongyaofangxiang,henduoshehuikexuezuixinyanjiuchengguo,ruyiminanzhijihua、shehuiwendingfengxianpinggudengzhuanyezhishizhujianbeixishoudaolegongchengpingguzhishitixizhizhong。zaicifangmiandeyixiangzhongyaochengguojiushigongchengxiangmudeshehuiyingxiangpingjia(social impact assessment,sia),qizuoyongzaiyufenxi、jianceheguanliyounijiangongchengsuoyinfadeshehuiyingxiang,baokuoyuqideheyuqizhiwaide,zhengmianhefumiandeshehuiyingxiang,yicujinyigekechixudehegongpingdeziranherenleihuanjing,shixianzhengmianshehuiyingxiangheshehuijiazhidezuidahua,jiangfumianshehuiyingxiangjiangzhizuidi。

4.评估知识的技术支撑更加完善

jisuanjijishuherengongzhinengdefazhan,jidadifengfulegongchengpingguzhishideshijianyingyong。yiciweijichu,yixiechouxiangdelilunzhishizhuanhuachengzhijiezhidaoshijianhuodongdeyingyongxingzhishi,tuidonglegongchengpingguzhishidefengfuhewanshan。lirupingguzhongdaliangshejiduigongchengweilaifazhanzhuangkuangdemoxingfenxi,zheizhongfenxishouduanzuichujiaoweiyuanshi,zhuyaoyikaoduishaoshubianliangdehuiguidengfangfajinxingjiandanyuce,zhunquexingjiaocha,danshisuizhexiandaijisuanjijishudefazhan,yucezhongnarudeyingxiangyinsuyuelaiyuequanmian,jisuanfenxidegongjujifangfagengjiakexueheli,qieyunsuanxiaolvgengkuai。zaicitiaojianxia,yixiezhuanyekexuejishuzhishizhujianzhuanhuaweigongchengpingguzhishi,erqiesuizherengongzhineng、yunjisuan、shujuwajuedengdashujufenxifangfadezhubuwanshan,weilaidegongchengpingguzhishichuangxinhezhuanhuashuipinghaijiangmaishanggenggaodetaijie。

四、结语

哒坪胎gongchengpinggushigongchenghuodongshengmingzhouqizhongbukehuoquedezhongyaozuchengbufen,duigongchengxiangmuzaijiazhifaxian、jiazhipingjiahejiazhitishengdengfangmianfahuizhezhongyaozuoyong。gongchenghuodongdeshixianxingshijuyouduoyangxingtezheng,gongchengpingguzhishiweiraozheduigongchenghuodongjinxingjiazhipanduanhejiazhiyouhuazheiyihexinmubiao,youbutonglingyu、butongcengcihebutongzhuanyedezhishisuogoucheng,chengweiduoweidudefuhexingjiegoutixi,chengxianchugouchengyaosudexitongxing、hangailingyudejichengxing、keguanyuzhuguanxiangjieheyijidongtaixingyuqianzhanyucexingdengduozhongshuxing,zaigongchenghuodongshengmingzhouqibutongjieduan、gongchengpinggulinianjijiazhisuqiudengbutongcengmiantixianchufengfuduocaidebiaoxianxingshi,bingyiqiduliheteyoudefangshijinxingchixuyanhua。gongchengpinggushijianbixujianchidisanfangpinggudezhutidiwei,qiangdiaoduigongchengweilaiqianjingdeyujianxing,fahuijiatongweiguanhehongguandeqiaoliangzuoyong,qiangdiaozhanlveguihuadedaoxiangzuoyong,youhuagongchengmubiaodingwei,shenshenquedinggongchengfangan,guanzhuchixuyingxiangxiaoguo,quanmianpingguyuqixiaoyi,kexueyingduigongchengfengxian,quebaogongchengkexuejuece,shixiangongchengyuqixiaoyi。yingbuduanzongjiegongchengpinggushijianhuodongzhongdezhishiyaosujiqiyanhuaguilv,jiaqianggongchengpingguzhishishuxingjileixingdeyanjiu,tantaogongchengpingguzhishidebiaoxianxingshijiyanhuaguilv,shenhuaduigongchengpingguzhishidelijieheshijiyingyong,tuidonggoujiangongchengpingguzhishitixi,tishenggongchengjiazhibingshixianduoweimubiao。

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注:本文原载于《工程研究》2020年第2期。

原文作者:王安,李开孟,武威,徐成彬