哒坪胎视界

邹昊飞 谭潇 | 新时期推动境外合作区高质量发展的总体思路与建议
发布日期:2019-07-13 信息来源:哒坪胎研究 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

【摘要】境外经贸合作区是落实“一带一路”倡议的重要节点、境实现国际产能与投资合作的重要平台,是我国发展模式与理念传播的重要载体,以及开展对外投资合作的重要名片。本文梳理分析了境外经贸合作区合作的合作背景、重要意义和相关政策举措,研究了境外经贸合作区合作建设现状与成效,以及合作中面临的问题,并提出境外经贸合作区高质量发展的总体思路和对策建议。

关键词:一带一路;境外经贸合作区;高质量发展;产能合作

一、新形势下境外经贸合作区建设面临新挑战

哒坪胎jingwaijingmaohezuoqu(yixiajianchenghezuoqu)shiduiwaitouzidefangshichuangxin,dangdeshibadayilai,tebieshi“yidaiyilu”changyitichuhou,hezuoqujianshekuaisufazhan、guimobuduankuoda,chengweituijin“yidaiyilu”jianshedezhongyaozhuashou、guojichannenghezuodezhongyaopingtai、shenhuashuangbianguanxidejingli“mingpian”。

埃塞俄比亚东方工业园

chanyeyuanqushigaigekaifangyilaiwoguojingjikuaisuzengzhangdezhongyaojingyan,shi“zhongguomoshi”dezhongyaotezheng。bansuizhewoguo“zouchuqu”bufajiakuai,guoneigongyeyuanqujingyankaishixiangquanqiufuzhi。shijianzhengming,jingwaijingmaohezuoqujianshegaoduqihedongdaoguofazhansuqiu,yeweiwoguoqiyetebieshizhongxiaoqiyedajiangonggongfuwupingtai,shixian“baotuanfazhan”,youfensanshi、“dandadudou”zhuanbianweijiqunshi、guimohuafazhan,yingxianglihezuoyongriyizengqiang,rangshijiedudonglezhongguogongyingdetouzilinian。jingwaijingjimaoyihezuoqufazhanyicheng“liaoyuanzhishi”,buruliangxingxunhuandefazhanguidao。

白俄罗斯中白工业园

哒坪胎dangdeshibadayilai,tebieshi“yidaiyilu”changyitichuhou,hezuoqujianshekuaisufazhan、guimobuduankuoda。hezuoqufazhanlichengfuhezhongguoqiye“zouchuqu”、shixianquanqiuchanyebuju、kaituoliangzhongshichangheliangzhongziyuandebiranguilv,shi“zhongguotese”fazhanmoshizaijingwaidejutishijianhechuangxin。

zai2017nianshoujie“yidaiyilu”guojihezuogaofengluntanhe2018nianzhongfeihezuoluntanbeijingfenghuishang,xijinpingzongshujixianhoutichu,yaoyituoxiangmu,banhaojingmao、chanyehezuoyuanqu,bingyaozaifeizhouxinjianheshengjiyipijingmaohezuoqu。2019nian4yue25ri,dierjie“yidaiyilu”guojihezuogaofengluntanjingwaijingmaohezuoqufenluntanshang,shangwububiaoshi,jingwaijingmaohezuoquyijingzhanzaixindeqidian,geguoyingxieshoutongxing,gongtonghuizhihaojingwaijingmaohezuoqudegongbihua。jiaqiangyugeguodezhanlveduijie、guihuaduijie、chanyeduijie,zhichiguoneiqiyeyuxiangguanguojiagongtonggaozhiliangjianshejingmaohezuoqu,zengqiangfushedaidongzuoyong,dazaofenxiangzhongguojingyan、gongcufazhandadepingtai。

dangqian,zhongmeimaoyimocachixushengjibingxiangzhangqihua、quanmianhuafangxiangfazhan,“meiguoyouxian”zhengcedaoxiangduiquanqiujiazhilianfazhanzaochengjidapohuai,zaiduifazhanzhongguojiachanyejichudailaipohuaixingdajitongshi,duiwoguochanyezhuanxingshengjidailaibuliyingxiang,duiwoguohongguanjingjifazhandailaigengduobuqueding、buwendingyinsu。jingwaijingmaohezuoqujiansheshidangqianxingshixiayingduimaoyimocadeyoulijucuo,jikezaibufenguojiatianbumeiguozhizaoye“huiliu”yiliudekongque、youlizhichilejingjiquanqiuhuayupuhuifazhan,yekejiasubujuyiwoweizhudejiazhilian、chanyelian,tishengwoqiyezaiquanqiujiazhiliandediwei,weihuzhengtiwaimaofene、cujinguoneiwaichanyepinghengbujufazhan。

二、境外经贸合作区建设现状与成效

(一)发展现状

tongguoshuangbiantujing,jiuhezuoqudetudizhengce、shuishouzhengce、laogongzhengce、jichusheshipeitaoyijimaoyitouzibianlihuacuoshidengjiaqiangyuzhuzaiguozhengfudecuoshang,weihezuoqujianshetigongzhichi,qieshiweihuhaowoqiyeherenyuandehefaquanyi,baozhangtouziherenyuananquan。jiezhi2019niandi,woguoyiyushijieshangzhuyaojingjitiqianshule100duogeduoshuangbianjingmaohezuojizhi,yu7geguojiaqianshule8gezhenduihezuoqufazhandezhengfujianxieding,haiyu10geguojiaqianshulezhenduihezuoqujianshedebumenjiandehezuobeiwangluhuoxieyi。

genjushangwubutongjishuju,jiezhi2019niandi,woguochujuguimode113jiajingwaijingmaohezuoqufenbuzai“yidaiyilu”yanxianzhuyaojizhongzaidongnanyaguojia、eluosihezhongdongouguojia,leijitouzi340yimeiyuan,ruquqiyeyue4500jia,shangjiaodongdaoguoshuifei28yimeiyuan,weidangdichuangzaochaoguo30wangejiuyegangwei,chengweiwoguotong“yidaiyilu”yanxianguojiahediqushixianzhengcegoutong、sheshiliantong、maoyichangtong、zijinrongtong、minxinxiangtongdezhongyaopingtaihezhuashou。

哒坪胎zaijianhezuoquzhong,you20geyijianchengyidingguimo,tongguoleshangwubu、caizhengbudequerenkaohe,huodezhuanxiangcaizhengzijinzhichi,qizhongjiagongzhizaoxingyuanqu12ge、ziyuanliyongxingyuanqu4ge、nongyechanyexingyuanqu3ge、shangmaowuliuxingyuanqu1ge。20gehezuoqufenbuyu13geguojia,qifeizhoudiqu4ge、zhongdongoudiqu2ge、eluosi4ge、zhongdongnanyadiqu7ge、nanyadiqu1ge、zhongyadiqu2ge。2017nian,20gehezuoquzhongziqiyezongtouzichaoguo58yimeiyuan,zongchanzhichaoguo110yimeiyuan、jiuyezongrenshu11wanduoren,zhanhezuoquzongliangde60%he45%yishang。

中国境外经贸合作区位置图(亚洲、非洲、欧洲部分)

hezuoqujianshechuangxinleduiwaitouzihezuofangshi,tansuojianlilebijiaochengshukexingdefazhanmoshi,chengweiwoduiwaitouzihezuodezhongyaomingpian、“yidaiyilu”jianshedezhongyaozhuashou、guojichannenghezhuangbeizhizaohezuodezhongyaozaiti,duijiakuaiwojingjijiegoudiaozhenghecujinshuangbianguanxifazhanfahuilezhongyaozuoyong。muqian,hezuoqufazhanchengxianruxiatedian:

哒坪胎yishihezuoquleixingbuduanfengfu。yuanquchanyejiegoubiaoxianchuxiangchanyelianliangduanyanshendetedian,hezuoquzhengzaizhubuyoujiagongzhizaoweizhuxiangshangyouziyuankaifaliyongtuozhan、xiangxiayoushangmaowuliuyanshen,gaokeji、gaoduanzhizaoleiyuanqushuliangyezaixianzhuzengduo。

ershiyuanqujianshechengxiaowenbutisheng。yuanqujichusheshitouziguimo、ruquqiyetouziguimo、chanzhi、shuishoudengjunyoujiaodafuduzengzhang,bingweidangdijingjishehuifazhanzuochuzhongdagongxian。

哒坪胎sanshihezuoqubujuyouhuafazhan。hezuoquxingchenglizuzhoubian、shengengfeizhou、quanqiutuozhandefenbugeju。tebieshi“yiluyidai”yanxianguojiachengweiwohezuoqubujudezhongdianquyu,zaijiandehezuoquzhanzongshuliangde70%yishang,chongfenfahuileyidiandaimiandetuidongzuoyong。dongnanyadiquzhuyaoliyongqilaodongliheziyuanyoushi,fazhanshengchanjiagongheziyuanliyongleiyuanqu;nanyadiquzhuyaoliyonglaodongliyoushi,fazhanshengchanjiagongleiyuanqu;eluosizhuyaoliyongqikuangchannengyuan、senlin、nongyeyoushi,fazhanziyuankaifaleiyuanqu;zhongdongoudiquliyonggaidiqu“chengdongqixi”dequweiyoushi,zhongdianfazhanshangmaowuliuleiyuanqu;feizhoudiquyituorenliziyuanyoushi、ziyuanhezhengceyoushi,fazhanchukoujiagongleiyuanquheziyuankaifaleiyuanqu。

匈牙利中欧商贸物流合作园

哒坪胎sishitouzizhutichengxianduoyuanhua。hezuoqutouzizhutiyichengxianzhongyangqiyehedifangguoqi、minyingqiyebingjudexinjumian,zhongxibudiquqiye“zouchuqu”bufamingxianjiakuai,zairuyuanqiyezongliangzhongzhanbixianzhushangsheng,chengxianchudongbudiqudaidongzhongxibudiqujianquqiyetici“zouchuqu”detedian。

(二)建设取得的成效

1.积极开展平台建设,集聚效应初步显现

哒坪胎hezuoqutongguojianshequneijichusheshi,wanshangonggongfuwupeitaotiaojian,weiruquqiyetigonglekaizhanshengchanjingyingsuoxudejichuhuanjing;tongguodajiangonggongfuwupingtai,wanshanyuanquguanlihezonghefuwutixi,jiechuleqiyedehouguzhiyou;tongguojizhongzhengqudongdaoguoyouhuizhengce,daidongchanyejiju,gaibianleqiyegeziweizhandejumian;tongguobangzhuqiye“jitichuhai、baotuanfazhan”,jiaqianglewoqiyeduidangdizhengfu、shehuidezhengxiangyingxiangli,youxiaodiyulekenengmianlindezhengjudongdang、shehuianquanhezhengcebiandongdengdailaishangyefengxian。hezuoquzuoweizhongziqiyedejijupingtai、fuwupingtaihezhengcepingtai,shixianlejiqunshitouziheliantiaoshifazhan,chubuxingchenglechanyejujiheguimoxiaoying,pingtaishifanxiaoyingyichubuxianxian。

2.实现优势产能对接,开拓国际市场资源服务国内经济产业升级

jingwaihezuoqujiansheqihedongdaoguofazhansuqiu,shiwoguoshixianchanyejiegoudiaozhenghequanqiuchanyebujudezhongyaochengjiepingtai,weiguoneijingjijiegoudiaozhengchuangzaokongjian,youlidituidonglezhuangbei“zouchuqu”heguojichannenghezuo。feizhou、dongnanyadengdiquziyuanfengfu,bingchuyukuaisuchengzhenhuaguochengzhong,duigeleijianzhujiancai、qingfangchanpin、jixiedianzidengchanpinxuqiuwangsheng,guoneiyoushichannengzhuanyiguoqudayoushichang,dadakaituoleguoneiqiyeguoneifazhankongjian。hezuoqutongguoyinlingwoguozhongziqiye“zouchuqu”,youxutuijinzhongdianxingyeguojichannenghezhuangbeizhizaohezuo,yindaoyipishifanxiaoyingda、daidongxingqiang、xiaoyihaodechannenghezuoxiangmuruyuan,caiyongguojiguoneixianjingongchengjishuhegongyibiaozhun,manzudangdishichangxuqiu,jinyibuxingchengjingwaitouzihezuoshifanxiaoyinghechanyejiju。

tongguoduiruquqiyechanyefenbufenxitongji,qinggongfangzhileiqiyeyuezhan30%,jianzhujiancaiyuezhan15%,jixiedianziyuezhan10%,nonglinchanpinjiagongyuezhan10%,chubuxingchengleqinggongfangzhi、jianzhujiancai、jixiedianzi、nonglinchanpinjiagongdengchanyejuji。liru,aisaiebiyajiangqinggong、fangzhi、pige、jiancaidengchukoujiagongxingchanyezuoweiguojiazhongdianfazhandezhanlvexingchanye,aisaiebiyadongfanggongyeyuanzebeilieruzhengfu“chixufazhanyutuopinjihua”,shiqigongyefazhanjihuazhongzhongyaoyouxianxiangmu。jiezhi2018nian5yue,dongfanggongyeyuangongyouruyuanqiye85jia,baokuorihua、zhiyao、zhixie、jiancai、shipinyijifangzhifuzhuangdengxingye,weizhongfeiguojichannenghezuochuangzaolelianghaodeshifandaidongxiaoying。

埃塞俄比亚东方工业园(EIZ)内一家制鞋企业

3.倡导合作共赢,高效开发利用境外能源资源

tongguohezuoqujianshe,woguojianlileyouxiaoliyongjingwaikuangchan、youqi、senlin、nongyedenggeleiziyuandequdao,youliyubaozhanghaiwaiziyuandezhangqi、wendinggongying。muqian,tongguoguojiaquerenkaohede7geziyuankaifayuanqugongzhangkonggengdi30duowangongqing,lindi50wangongqing,tonggukuang、hongtuniekuangkuangquanmianjijin10wangongqing,tongziyuanliang500wandunyishang,nieziyuanliang2yidunyishang。yiyinniqingshanyuanquweili,hezuoqu2017nianjiangxingcheng160wandunnietie(zhehechunnie16wandun)dechanneng,xiangdangyuwoguo2014niannietienianxiaohaoliangde18%,jinkouquekoude80%,nenggouyouxiaobaozhangwoguodenieziyuangongying。tongshi,hezuoqulizuyuziyuanzonghekaifaliyong,youlidihuijihebochiyixieguojiyulunrenweiwokaizhanjingwaiziyuanhezuoshi“lveduoziyuan”、gao“xinzhiminzhuyi”。hezuoqudingweiyujiaqiangziyuanzonghekaifaliyong,fazhanxiayoushengchanjiagong,zengjiaziyuanchanpinfujiazhi、tuidongdongdaoguojingjihechanyefazhan,bagengduoliyiliuzaidangdi,liujidangdirenmin,shiyizhonghuligongyingdehezuo。

印尼青山钢铁园区

4.带动国内设备、材料及商品出口,技术、标准及劳务输出

chongfenfahuiguoneijishuhechannengyoushi,jiehexingyejiegoudiaozheng,yichengtaoshebeichukou、touzi、shougou、chengbaogongchengdengfangshi,zaiziyuantiaojianhao、peitaonengliqiang、shichangqianlidadezhongdianguojia,jiaqiangziyuankaifahechanyetouzi,jianshelvseshengchanjidi,daidongzhuangbeiduiwaichukou,jijituidongzhongguojishuyubiaozhunzouchuqu,youxiaodaidongrenyuanyulaowushuchu。jiehejingwaiziyuankaifa,yanshenxiayouchanyelian,kaizhanxiayoujingshenjiagong,daidongchengtaoshebeichukou。tongguojingwaishechangdengfangshi,jiakuaizizhupinpaizouxiangguojishichang。jijikaituofazhanzhongguojiashichangheqianzaixinxingshichang,tuidongguochanshangpinzouchuqu。tongguojianlidangdifenxiaowangluoheweihuzhongxin,daidongguochanpinpaijixiangguanpeitaochanpinchukou,jiakuaitishengpinpaiguojiyingxiangli。gulizhongziqiyezaioumeifadaguojiashelijishuyanfazhongxin,jiaqiangyuguowaiyoushiliqiyedejishuhezuo,jinyibutigaozizhupinpaideyanfahezhizaojishushuiping。

yi2015-2017niantongjishujuweili,hezuoquzhongziqiyetouzidaidongyuanqugeleishengchanshebei、gongchengjixie、dianlishebei、qingfangyuanliao、jiancai、qichejidianzilingpeijiandengchukoujinecongyue15yimeiyuanzengzhiyue21yimeiyuan,pingjunzengzhanglvchaoguo20%,pingjunmeigejiagongzhizaoxinghezuoquzhongziqiyedaidongshebei、zhuangbeichukouyue12yimeiyuan。qizhong,tongguoquerenkaohede20gehezuoqu,2017niandaidongshebei、zhuangbeichukouchaoguo19yimeiyuan,zhantongqihezuoquzongliangde90%yishang。liru,taiguoluoyonggongyeyuanyinruzhongziqiye72jia,qizhongqipei、jixiedianzihejiancaixingyezhanbidadao70%,2013zhi2016niannianchanzhifenbiedadao12.5yimeiyuan、10.5yimeiyuanhe13.5yimeiyuan,ruyuanqiyeshengchanchanpinyuancailiao、bujiandengdabufenzizhongguojinkou,jinsannianfenbiedadao5.4yimeiyuan、6.3yimeiyuanhe7yimeiyuan,leijidadao50yimeiyuan,daidongzuoyongxianzhu。

5.承担社会责任,为东道国经济发展做出贡献

哒坪胎hezuoqufazhanyouxiaotigaodongdaoguochanyejishushuipingheshengchannengli,jiakuaijichusheshijianshebufa,zhubuwanshanchanyetixi,daidongjiuyehejingjishehuifazhan,lvxingleshehuizeren,shulilezhongguoqiyefuzerenxingxiang,gongguheshenhuawoyuxiangguanguojiayouhaoguanxi。hezuoquhaitongguojijicanyudangdishehuigongyihuodong,ruzanzhuxiujianshizhengdaolu,yuanjianxiaoshe、tushuguanhetiyuwenhuasheshi,juanzhugongyijijin,zuzhiyuyanhejinengpeixunjiwenhuajiaoliudenghuodong,jinechaoguoqianwanmeiyuan,zaidongdaoguozhengfuheshequminzhongzhongshulilelianghaokoubei,dedaoshehuiyulundehaoping。

jiezhi2019niandi,zaijianyuanquzaidongdaoguoleijishangjiaodongdaoguoshuifei28yimeiyuan,weidangdichuangzaojiuyegangwei30wange,dangdicaigougeleishebei、yuancailiaojinechaoguo20yimeiyuan。yuanquyuanjiandongdaoguogeleijiaoyutiyuwenhuasheshi,yiliaoweishengjigou,wushuichuli、daoludengshizhenggongyisheshi120yusuo/chu,kaizhanyuangongzhiyejinengpeixunjin14wanci,cishanjuankuanshuqianwanmeiyuan。

三、推动境外经贸合作区建设的举措

1.不断完善相关政策,创新支持方式,支持重点领域

weizhidaoheguifanhezuoqufazhan,2008nianshangwubu、caizhengbuzhidingle《jingwaijingjimaoyihezuoququerenkaohezanxingbanfa》(shanghefa[2008]431hao)he《jingwaijingjimaoyihezuoqufazhanzijinguanlizanxingbanfa》(shangcaifa[2008] 211hao)。weijinyibuzuohaojingwaijingmaohezuoqudezhidaohefuwugongzuo,chuangxinhezuoqufazhanmoshi,2013nianhe2015nianshangwubu、caizhengbuxianhouduiyuanbanfajinxinglexiudingwanshan,chutaile《jingwaijingjimaoyihezuoququerenkaoheheniandukaohebanfa》(shanghefa[2013]210hao)he《jingwaijingmaohezuoqukaohebanfa》(shanghefa[2015]296hao)。

jingwaijingmaohezuoquxiangguanzhengcebuduanwanshan,zhuyaotixianzai:

哒坪胎yishifeichujingwaihezuoqudezhaotoubiaozhidu,yinruxindezhunrumoshi,bingtuchuzhichizhongdian,hezuoqujianshegaodujujiao“yidaiyilu”changyi、guojichannenghezhuangbeizhizaohezuo、feizhou“sanwangyihua”deng,shizhengcefushemiangengguang,zhichixiaoguogengmingxian;

哒坪胎ershiduihezuoqujinxingfenleizhidao,anjiagongzhizaoxing、ziyuanliyongxing、nongyechanyexingheshangmaowuliuxingdengzhidingquerenkaoheheniandukaohedebiaozhunheyaoqiu,houqiyouxinzenglexiangguanlingyugaoxinjishujichanpinyanfa、sheji、shiyanweizhudaodekejiyanfaxingyuanquleixing;

哒坪胎sanshizaishidangtigaohezuoququerentiaojianjichushang,jiadazhengcefuchilidu,cujinjuyouyidingjichudehezuoqujinkuaizuoqiangzuoda、jiankangyouxufazhan;

sishigaijinzhichifangshi,zaiduihezuoqujichusheshijianshejinxingbuzhujichushang,zhenduiqiyepubianfanyingdekexingxingyanjiudengqianqifeiyongtouruda、rongzichengbengao、jingwaitouzifengxianduodengshijiwenti,zhuyaocaiyongdaikuantiexi、qianqifeiyongbuzhu、baofeibuzhudengfangshi,yishidanghuanjiehezuoqujianshezijinchengbenjifengxianyali。

yucitongshi,jijituidongxiangguandifangrenminzhengfuhuozhongyangqiyeliyongzishenyoushiheziyuanzhichisuoshuqiyejinxinghezuoqujianshe,tuidonggesheng(zizhiqu)zhidingshengjiyuanquzhichizhengce,weihezuoqufazhanchuangzaotiaojian。jubuwanquantongji,muqianyiyoujinjinershigeshengquzhidingleshengjijingwaijingmaohezuoyuanququerenkaoheguanlibanfa,tuidongbenshengqujingwaihezuoqujianshe,xingchenglezhongyangyudifangfengongxiezuo、gaoxiaoxietong、quanmiantuidongjingwaihezuoqujianshexinjumian。

2.进一步强化境外合作区服务职能

哒坪胎tuidongqiandingshuangbianxieyi,jianlizhengfujianguanyuhezuoqujianshedexiediaojizhi。tongguoshuangbiantujing,jiuhezuoqudetudizhengce、shuishouzhengce、laogongzhengce、jichusheshipeitaoyijimaoyitouzibianlihuacuoshidengjiaqiangyuzhuzaiguozhengfudecuoshang,weihezuoqujianshetigongzhichi。qieshiweihuhaowoqiyeherenyuandehefaquanyi,baozhangtouziherenyuananquan。jiezhi2019niandi,woguoyitongshijieshangzhuyaodejingjitiqianshule100duogeduoshuangbianjingmaohezuojizhi,yu7geguojiaqianshule8gezhenduihezuoqufazhandezhengfujianxieding,haiyu10geguojiaqianshulezhenduihezuoqujianshedebumenjiandehezuobeiwangluhuoxieyi。

weiguifanfazhan,tishenghezuoqufuwuzhiliangheshuiping,xiyingengduodeqiyeruqutouzi,shixiangongtongfazhan,2015nian8yue4rishangwubuguanyuyinfa《jingwaijingmaohezuoqufuwuzhinanfanben》detongzhi,guifanyindaohezuoqujianliwanshanjianlijingwaizonghegonggongfuwupingtai,wanshangonggongtixijianshe,tishengzaixinxizixun、yunyingguanli、wuyeguanli、tufashijianyingjifuwudengfangmianfuwuzhineng,dajianqiyejiqunshiguojihuafazhandepingtai。

weituidongjingwaihezuoquzhaoshangyinzi,shangwubutongguoguangjiaohui、ningbozheqiahui、shamentouqiahui、nanningdongmengbolanhuidengzhuanyehuapingtai,kaipizhuanmenzhaoshangzhantai,jinxinghezuoquzhaoshangtuijiegongzuo,bingyugeshengshangwuzhuguanbumenhexingyexiehuiduijie,yijijubanhezuoqudongdaoguoxiangguanrenyuanpeixunhuodongdeng,xiezhujiejuehezuoquzhaoshangnanwenti。

3.协调解决合作区建设融资难问题、规避投资保险

哒坪胎zhenduiqiyejingwaihezuoqurongzinan、touzifengxianfangfannandengshijiwenti,shangwubuyuguojiakaifayinxing、zhongguoxinyongbaoxiangongsifenbieqiandingzhichijingwaihezuoqufazhanderongzi、touzibaoxianxiangguanxieyi,tuidongzhongfeifazhanjijinzaihezuoqujianlizhongxiaoqiyejijin。2010nian6yue29ri,shangwubuhezhongguochukouxinyongbaoxiangongsifabu《guanyujiaqiangjingwaijingjimaoyihezuoqufengxianfangfangongzuoyouguanwentidetongzhi》,gongtongjianlihezuoqufengxianfangfanjizhi,shangwubuquanmiancujinhejianduhezuoqudefengxianfangfangongzuo,zhongguoxinbaoweihezuoqutigongfengxianfenxi、fengxianguanlijianyiyijibaoxiandengfengxianbaozhangfuwu。2013nian12yue13ri,chutai《shangwubu guojiakaifayinxingguanyuzhichijingwaijingjimaoyihezuoqujianshefazhanyouguanwentidetongzhi》,guojiakaifayinxingmingquehezuoquyouxianrongzidejibentiaojian,zhenduihezuoqudetedianhexuqiu,duihezuoqutigongrongzifuwu,zhongdianyouxianzhichiyitongguoquerenkaohedehezuoquxiangmu。

哒坪胎muqian,yiyou13gehezuoquhuodeleguojiakaifayinxing、zhongguojinchukouyinxingdengjinrongjigoutigongdekaifaqujianshedaikuanrongzijin10yimeiyuan,jin10gehezuoquyihuodezhongxinbaodengtigongdeyuanqutouzibaoxian。

四、境外经贸合作区合作中面临的问题

1.总体规划与统筹布局有待提升

xianyouhezuoquduoyouwoqiyezifaxianxingjiansheerlai,queshaotongyiguihua、lunzheng,duihezuoqudezongtishuliang、guobiediqubuju、chanyedingwei,zhudongshenrufenxibugou,zhengcedaoxiangbuqingxi,zhidaocuoshinanyizaishijianzhongguanche。zongtilaikan,hezuoqudefazhanquefatongchoubuju,geyuanqudechanyefazhanhaiweinengyuguoneichanyezhuanyixingchenggengyouxiaoxianjie,haimianlinxindezhengzhi、jingji、shehuianquan、zhengcefalvdengfengxian,xinxingshibianhuaduihezuoqujianshetichulexinyaoqiuhetiaozhan。conghezuoquzishenjianshelaikan,cunzaihezuoquzishendingwei、quweixuanze、huanjingzhiyuedengfangmiandewenti。zaitongyiguojiahuoquyujiansheduogeleixingxiangsi、chanyexiangjinyuanqueryinqidezaizhaoshang、yunying、guanlidengfangmiandeexingjingzheng。bufenhezuoquduiyuchanyedexuanzeyijiweilaideguihuabumingque,duidongdaoguoguoneishichangxuqiuyijifushenengliquefayupan,cunzaiduiyuhezuoquzongtidingweibuheli,zhudaochanyexuanzeguozadexianxiang。

2.项目前期工作的落实保障与分析研究相对缺乏

congjiansheqingkuangkan,hezuoqucunzaitudihuoqu、chanyedingwei、xuqiufenxi、peitaosheshi、zhengcetiaojian、kaifayuhezuofangshidengyixiliewentizhiyue,xiangmuqianqigongzuodeluoshibaozhangyufenxiyanjiujixujinyibujiaqiang。muqian,bufenhezuoquduiyuchanyedexuanzeyijiweilaideguihuabumingque,duidongdaoguoguoneishichangxuqiuyijifushenengliquefayupan,cunzaiduiyuhezuoquzongtidingweibuheli,zhudaochanyexuanzeguozadexianxiang。hezuoqusuozaididadouweijingjibutaifadadeguojiahuodiqu,gongyejichuboruo,chanyepeitaocha,shui、dian、ludengwaibupeitaotiaojianbuzu,dangdizhengfunanyipeitaojianshehezuoqusuoxujichusheshi;bufendongdaoguotouzihuanjingcha,falvfaguibujianquan,zaizhiduhuanjing、xinyonghuanjingdengdoucunzaiyidingdequexian,guanliaozhuyihefubaixianxiangyanzhong,cunzaishenpigongchengxiangmuchengxufuzafansuo、xiaolvdixiadengwenti;yuanqudefalvdiwei、youhuizhengcetiaojiannanyiluoshi,jianshenanduda、chengbengao。

3.可持续盈利模式建立较难

hezuoqupubiancaiqu"gundongkaifa"moshi,qianqitourujiaoda,gudingzichandengchenmeichengbenjiaogao,touzijianshezhutimianlinjiaodadezijinyalihetouzifengxian。muqian,dabufenhezuoqurengchuyukaifachujijieduan,shouyizhuyaolaizitudixiaoshouyijia、yuanquyunyingwuyefuwudeng,shouyilaiyuanxiangduidanyi,yituoshangyedichanhefangdichankaifashixianshouyifanbugongyedichandeyinglimoshizaiduanqineiyejiaonanjianxiao。tongshi,hezuoqujianshezijinyiqiyezichouweizhu,zhengcexingtourulidujiaoxiao,rongzikunnanshiyuanqujianshemianlinjiaodazijinyali。ciwai,duoshuhezuoqudongdaoguojinrongshichangbuwanshan、rongziqudaoshao、rongzichengbengao;neibaowaidai、waibaowaidaikuajingzibenliudongqudaobuchang,shidexuduohezuoqujingwaizichanwufapanhuo,zijinzhouzhuanman,yunyingyalijiaoda。youyuhezuoqukaifajiansheshangweixingchengwendingdeshourulaiyuan,jingyingguanliyuyuanqukaifajianshezhouqizhang,touzihuishouman,yinglishuipingchuyujiaodishuiping,kechixufazhanzhangxiaojizhijiaonanjianli。

4.政府引导与协调机制作用有待加强

duoshuhezuoquzaidongdaoguozhengfuguanlinenglibuqiang、yingshanghuanjingqianjiaqingkuangxia,hezuoqukaifayunyingnanmianxuyaoxiediaodongdaoguozhengfujiejuexiangguanwenti。danmuqianhezuoquduoweizhongziqiyedanfangshishijichusheshijianshe,dongdaoguozhengfu、qiyeduoweijieruhezuokaifa,liangguozhengfuduihezuoquyequefamingxidehezuoxieyi,hezuoqudefalvdiwei、touzibaozhang、youhuizhengcedengchuzaimohuzhuangtai,zhengfuyuqiye、guanliyufuwudengguanxibushun,yuzhengfuxiediaonanduhechengbendoujiaogao,weinengchongfenfahuizhengfuyindaoyuxiediaojizhizuoyong。

五、境外经贸合作区发展的总体思路

1.深入对接三大战略

哒坪胎yishi,duijiewoguogongjian“yidaiyilu”,fuwuduiwaihezuodaju,weigongjianguojichannenghezuodajianhulihezuopingtai,yanshenwoquanqiuchanyelianhejiazhilian;ershi,duijiedongdaoguofazhanzhanlve,yichanyexianjie、channenghubu、huligongyingweidaoxiang,tuidongyoushifuyuchannengyouxuzhuanyi、manzudongdaoguofazhansuqiu;sanshi,duijieshijiequanqiuhuafazhanzhanlve,quanmianzhichihetuidongmaoyiquanqiuhuafazhan,tuidongquanqiuchanyehelifengong,goujiankechixudequanqiugongyingliantixi。

“一带一路”区域图

2.努力实现三个目标

yishi,guojiazongtibujumubiao,genjujingwaihezuoqufazhanbujuguihuayuchanyezhidao,tuchuzhongdianquyu、zhongdianguobie、youxianchanye,youzhongdian、fencengcituidongkaizhanhezuoqujianshe,dazaogaozhiliangfazhandepinpaihezuoqu;ershi,chuangxinfazhanmubiao,chuangxinhezuoqujiansheheyunyingmoshi,chuangxinfazhanlinian,zhongdianzhichizonghejingzhengnengliqiang、ziyuanzhenghenengliqiang、dikangfengxiannengliqiangdeqiye,qiantoujianshedazaogaozhilianghezuoqu,fahuishifanxiaoying;sanshi,lvsekechixufazhanmubiao,manzulvsehuanbaozheiyiweilaishijiedachaoliu,huyingkechixufazhanzheiyisuoyouguojiadeyuanjing。

3.积极搭建四类平台

哒坪胎yishi,gonggongfuwujichusheshipingtai,gulijianlijichusheshiwanshan、shengchanshenghuopeitaosheshiqiquanjingwaijingmaohezuoqupingtai,weizhongguoqiyetebieshizhongxiaoqiyechuangzaolianghaode“yingtiaojian”,manzuyuanquchanyeshengchanyufazhanjibenxuyao;ershi,lianjiegaoxiaoderuanfuwupingtai,hezuoquyaobuduantigaokuaguojingyingnengli、guojihuajingyingshuiping,anzhaoshichangshangyeyuanze,bingchengkaifang、lvse、lianjielinian,jingyinghegui、gongwufuwuneirongfengfude“ruanhuanjing”;sanshi,zhengcezhichengfuwujiandupingtai,zhengfujinyibuzuohaozhichengfuwu,caizhengzhichizhengceyingzaijixubaochifahuijilijianglizuoyongjichushang,shiyingxiandaiguojitongxingguanli,zengjiahezuoqugongyixing、pingtaixing、puhuixingfangxiangshangdezhichilidu,quebaozhengceshijiandegongpingxing;sishi,lvsejinrongfuwupingtai,zhelijiejueyuanqupubiancunzaiderongzinan、rongziguiwenti,kaituochuangxinjinrongzhichifangshi,manzuqiyerongzixuqiu。

六、境外经贸合作区合作的对策建议

1.做好合作区布局规划,加强政府统筹引导力度

youxutuidonghezuoquzaiquanqiu、tebieshi“yidaiyilu”yanxianguojiadefazhanbuju,shixianzhongdianguobie、zhongdianchanyeyouxianfazhan。hezuoqujianshehefazhanyi“yidaiyilu”weizhuxian,lizuyazhouzhoubian,shengengfeizhou,mianxianglamei,tuozhanzhongdongoudiqu,jijijinrufadaguojia,youzhongdian、youcengci、youxuanzedituijinheyindao。tebieshizhendui“yidaiyilu”guojiadaduochuyugongyehuajinchengchuqi,shichangqianlijiaoda,xiyinwaiziyiyuanqiangliedeyoulishiji,jinyibuyouhuaguobiechanyehezuogeju,tuijinyuwochannengqihedugao、hezuotiaojianhejichujiaohaodeguojiakaizhanhezuoqujianshe,xingchengqiyejiqunshi“zouchuqu”,shendurongruquanqiuchanyelian、jiazhilian、wuliulian,bingduidongdaoguozhoubianguojiahediquxingchengchanyefushe。

2.继续完善现有政策措施,精准发力、定向施策

hezuoquzhengcecuoshizhichifangxianghezhongdianbixuweirao“yidaiyilu”changyiheguoneichanyejiegoudiaozheng、gongjicegaigeyaoqiu,jieduanxingzuochudiaozheng。dangqian,hezuoquzhichizhengceyaoyiguojichannenghezhuangbeizhizaohezuoweizhuashou,yishizhelijieheguonei“quchanneng”yijixuyaodaliangtourunengyuanziyuandechanye“zhaochulu”chufa,dazaoguojichannenghezhuangbeizhizaohezuoshifanqu;ershichongfenliyong“liangzhongziyuan”,jianshejingwaiziyuannengyuanshenjiagongyuanqu;sanshiweiraohulianhutong,zhulichanyejijufazhan,fazhanxiandaiwuliuyuanqu;sishijiehe“buduanban”、jishuyinjintuidongguoneichanyeshengjixuqiu,tuidonggaokejiyanfayuanqu。

印尼聚龙农业产业园棕榈深加工企业

3.强化政府服务和监督职能,规范合作区上水平、上规模

wanshanguoneijigoujianhengxiangxiediaojizhi,wanshanshangwu、shuishou、haiguandengzhengfubumenjijinrongjigoujianyouguanhezuoqudehengxiangxiediaojizhi。yindaojinrongfuwuhuijihezuoqufazhan,gulishangyeyinxing、baoxian、xintuodengjinrongjigouchuangxinjinrongchanpinhefuwu,jiejuehezuoqurongzinanti,yindaohezhichizhengcexingyinxing、baoxiangongsihekaifaxingjinrongjigoushelihezuoqufazhanjijin,weihezuoqudejianshehefazhantigongrongzizhichi。jiaqianghezuoquhaiwaizichanjianguan,guifanqiyejingyinghuodong,yindaoheducuhezuoqujianquanxiandaiqiyeguanlizhidu,jianlijianquananquanfengxianfangfanjizhi,guibitouzifengxian。

4.继续推动建立政府间园区合作磋商协调机制

chongfenfahuixianyouduoshuangbianjingmaohezuojizhidezuoyong,jijituijinzai“yidaiyilu”、zhongfei“sanwangyihua”denghezuokuangjiaxia,yuzhongdianguojiajianlizhenduihezuoquhezuodezhengfujiancuoshangxiediaojigou,xingchengzhengfuxiediaozhangxiaojizhihefengxiangongtongyingduijizhi,tuidongzhuanxiangfuwuhezuoqudeyouguanshuishou、laowu、jianyanjianyidengyouhuizhengceluodi,weihezuoqudefazhanhejianshetigongyoulidezhidubaozhang。

5.提升园区核心竞争力,创新园区可持续发展模式

哒坪胎jiaqiangyuanqujiaoliuhezuo,tuidongguoneishilijiaoqiang、yuanquyunzuojingyanfengfudechanyelongtouqiyeyujinrongjigou、xingyexiehui、fuwuzhongjiedenggongtongtouzijianshehezuoqu;tuidongyuanquhudonghezuo,tongguodisanguohuodisanfangcanyu、shuangbianjingmaoyuanquhezuo、liangguoshuangyuandengxinxingfazhanmoshi,fahuiyoushi、neiwaihudong,tishenghezuoqufazhanshuiping。shixianyuanquyinglimoshiduoyuanhua,gaibianjintongguotudichurang、budongchanzulinhuozheshiwuyelaizhuanqushouyidedanyimoshi,jijikaituojichusheshiyunying、wuliufuwu、ruguyuanquchanyexiangmutouzishouyi、touzizixun、qiyeyunyingfuwudengyingliqudao。duiyuziyuanxingkaifayuanqu,xuyaoshixianjiangziranziyuankaifayuxiayouchanyetouzideyoujijiehe,shixianxianghuyicun、xianghuzhicheng,jianligongronggongshengguanxi。zaijiansheyunyingmoshishang,yifangmiancongyuanqudanyitouzizhutixianglianhetitouzizhuanbian,xiangppp、tot、botdengmoshizhuanbian,lingyifangmiancongdanyiyuanqukaifaxiangchanchengronghekaifafangxiangzhuanbian,jianggongyedichankaifayushangyedichan、wuliudichanshenzhishizhuzhaidichanjiehezhuanbian,tongguoshangyekaifafanbugongyeyuanqukaifa,shixiankechixufazhan。

七、结语

哒坪胎zaigongjian"yidaiyilu"changyituidongxia,woguojingwaijingmaohezuoqujinrukuaisufazhanjieduan,tuidongjingwaijingmaohezuoqugaozhiliangfazhan,youzhuyugenggaoshuiping、gengshencengcicujinguojichannengyuzhuangbeizhizaohezuo,youliyuzhongguoqiyegaozhiliang"zouchuqu",tigaotouzihezuoshuipingheguojijingzhengnengli,youyiyuyudongdaoguogongjiankechixufazhandeliyigongtongtipingtai。dazaogaozhiliangpinpaijingwaijingmaohezuoqu,jiyaoduijieguojiafazhanzhanlve,yeyaofuhedongdaoguofazhanzhanlvesuqiu,gengyaoweituidongtouziyumaoyiquanqiuhua、shixianchanyehelifengong、goujiankechixudequanqiugongyingliantixizuochuzhongyaogongxian。hezuoqujianshefazhanyaojianjuebingchengchuangxin、kaifang、lvse、gongxiang、lianjielinian,dajiandujutesederuanhuanjingheyingtiaojianpingtai,zhuanhuanfazhanmoshi,kuokuanrongziqudao,peiyuyoushichanyehechanyejiquntixi,shixianyuanqufazhanxingwenzhiyuan。

参考文献

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[3]邹昊飞,谭潇,杜贞利.中国与“一带一路”沿线国家园区合作-“一带一路”建设发展报告(2019)[M].北京:社会科学文献出版社,2019:74-88.

[4]洪联英,张云.我国境外经贸合作区建设与企业“走出去”战略[J].国际经贸探索[J].国际经贸探索,2011(3):48-54.

[5]张菲.中非经贸合作区建设模式与可持续发展问题研究[J].国际贸易,2013(3):34-39.

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注:文中图片来源于网络