哒坪胎视界

黄波 | 日本的废弃物处理政策及垃圾分类实施借鉴
发布日期:2018-09-30 信息来源:哒坪胎 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

【摘要】

chengshilajishichengshihuafazhandebanshengchanwu,qidaliangchanshengbihuidailaiburonghushidehuanjingwenti。ruheyouxiaochulichengshilaji,shidangjinshijiegongtongguanzhudeketi,lajiyuantoujianliang、wuhaihuachuli、ziyuanhualiyongshibiyouzhilu,erlajifenleishilajichuliquanchanyeliandejichuhebaozheng。ribenzaichengshilajifenleizhilifangmian,bulunshizhengcetixihaishijutishishijunzouzaishijieqianlie,youhenduohaodejingyankeyijiejian。

哒坪胎 ribenshizhongguodejinlin,qilishiwenhuayuzhongguoyouhenduodexiangsizhichu,zhanhouribenbujinzaijingjijianshefangmianqudelejudadechenggong,erqiezaihuanjingbaohufangmianyequdeleshirenzhumudechengjiu。yifeiqiwuchuliweili,zuoweihuanjingbaohuduicedeyihuan,ribenzhengfuzaigegejieduandouxiangyingzhidinglebutongdezhengcecuoshi,suirangejieduanzhengcecezhongdianyousuobutong,danzongdelaishuobiaoxianweizhengcetixidebuduanwanshan,bingyoucidaidonglequanshehuidejijicanyu。

一、日本的废弃物处理政策变迁

ribenzizhanhoujingjikuaisufazhan,youqishishangshiji60niandaihoujingjigaosuzengzhangjieduan,bansuizheshengchanhuodongpaifangdaliangyouhaifeiqiwu,zaochengyitongtongbing、shuiyubing、diershuiyubing、sirishibing“sidagonghai”weidaibiaodeyanzhonghuanjingwuranwenti,yinqileshijiefanweideguanzhu。ribenzhengfukaishigaoduzhongshihuanjingwenti,caiquzhengcecuoshijiadahuanjingbaohulidu,huanjingwentideyizhubugaishan。20shiji80niandaiyihou,mianduizhexindehuanbaoxingshi,feiqiwugengjiaduoyanghuayijizuizhongchulichangdebuzu,cuchengribendehuanjingbaohuzhengcegengjiaquanmianxizhi,congzhuyaofangzhigonghaifashengdeshenghuohuanjingbaohu,zhuanbiandaohuanbaoyuziyuanzailiyongjiehedeshuangzhongkaolv,qiegengjiazhuzhongcujinguominderenzhi。jinru21shijiyilai,ribentichuleyixunhuanxingshehuixingchengweimubiaodetuijinzhengce,feiqiwuchulijinrudaoyigequanxinshiqi。

哒坪胎zi20shiji50niandaiqi,kuaisudejingjizengzhanghechengshihuafazhandaozhiribenchengshilajidejuzeng。lajibeiqingdaoyuhechuanhehaiyangzhong,huoduifangyuyewai,youcichanshengdaliangdewenying,yedaozhilechuanranbingdemanyandengwenti。1954nian,ribenzhidingle《qingsaofa》,gaifachuyanxuzhiqianyoushizhencunfuzelajideshoujihechuzhidezuofa,haizengjialeguojiahedoudaofuxianyingjiyucaizhenghejishuzhichi、juminyouyiwupeiheshizhencunjinxingshoujihechuzhidengneirong。zaichuzhifangshishang,youyulajidejuzengdaozhichuantongderenlishoujinenglimingxianbuzu,qielubiandaozhuangzaochenglajifeisan,shoujigongzuokaishizouxiangjixiehua,bingcujingechengshiyinjinlajifenshaosheshi。

哒坪胎20shiji60niandai,ribenjinrujingjigaosuzengzhangshiqi,chengshilajizengjiadesudujinyibujiakuai,yeyujiaduoyanghua。ribenyiwanggegegongyexingyepaifangdefeiqiwuyeyoushizhencunjinxingchuli,dansuizheshengchanhuodongdebuduankuoda,chanshengdeduozhongfeiqiwubeifeifadiuqi。lingwai,suizhechengshidekaifa,chanshengledaliangdezhatuzhuanwaleidejianzhufeicai,youxiebeifeifaqingdaoyukongdi、daolu、heandeng。ciwaihaifashenglegongchangpaifangdefeiqiwuzhonghanyouzhongjinshudengweixianyouhaiwuzhi,yijisuliaofenshaochanshengyoudufeiqidengwenti。

哒坪胎zheigeshiqi,ribenbujinfeiqiwuwuranjiaju,daqiheshuiwuranyeriquyanzhong,gonghaiwentijidaijiejue。weici,1970nian11yue,ribenzhaokailebeichengweigonghaiguohuidelinshiguohui(di64ciguohui),tongguole14bugonghaixiangguanfaling。zaigonghaiguohuishang,weijianlibaokuochanyefeiqiwuzaineidefeiqiwuzhengtidechulitizhi,ribenquanmianxiudingle《qingsaofa》,zhidingle《feiqiwuchulifa》。

哒坪胎zairiben《feiqiwuchulifa》zhong,jiangfeiqiwufenwei“chanyefeiqiwu”he“yibanfeiqiwu”liangzhong。chanyefeiqiwushizhi“bansuiqiyehuodongsuochanshengdefeiqiwuzhongfalingguidingde20zhonglei”,baokuoranzha、wuni、feiyou、feisuan、feijiandeng,paifangqiyefuyouchulizeren,jinxingshoujiyunshujichuzhidefeiqiwuchuliyeyuanzeshangxuyaodoudaofuxianzhishidepizhun。lingyifangmian,yibanfeiqiwu,yebeichengzuo“chanyefeiqiwuyiwaidefeiqiwu”,jilajihefenbian,anguanlishizhencunfuyouchulizeren,jinxingshoujiyunshujichuzhidefeiqiwuchuliyeyuanzeshangxuyaoshizhencunzhangpizhun。riben2016niandudeyibanfeiqiwuzongpaifangliangwei4317wandun,zongziyuanhualiang(buhanranshaoshiderenengliyong)wei879wandun,huishouliyonglvwei20%,zuizhongchuzhiliangwei398wandun,weizongpaifangliangde10%。

哒坪胎《feiqiwuchulifa》zhongchuguidingyibanfeiqiwuhechanyefeiqiwudechulizerenfendan,haigenjufalvhexiangguanbiaozhuntuidongzhidingwuchengshinongcunchayidequanribentongyidefeiqiwuchulisheshi、zuizhongchuzhichang(tianmaichang)degouzaobiaozhunyijiweihuguanlibiaozhun,chuangjianleguokubuzhujinzhidu,duichulisheshijianshexiangmujinxingbutie,tuidongleribenfeiqiwudeguifanchuli。tongshi,jijituijinshizhencundelajifenleishoujigongzuo。

哒坪胎cong20shiji80niandaihoubanqi,ribendaliangshengchan、daliangxiaofei、daliangfeiqixingdeshehuijingjihuodongyijingchangtaihua,feiqiwupaifangliangzengjia、daxingjiadianchanpindengnanyijinxingguifanchuli、petpingpujidengzaochengrongqibaozhuangzengjia、yunwangzuizhongchuzhichangdefeiqiwuliangzengjiadengwentijiaju,xianyouzuizhongchuzhichangshengyurongliangchuxianweiji,yibanfeiqiwuchuzhichangshengyuronglianghaishengyu10nian、chanyefeiqiwushengyurongliangzhishengyu1-3nian。tongshi,youyulajifenshaosheshizhongerwuyingleidechansheng,linbiwentituchu,feiqiwufenshaosheshihezuizhongchuzhichangdejiansheyemianlinkunjing。

哒坪胎zaicixingshixia,ribenzhongxinshenshiguoquyifeiqiwudeguifanchuliweijibendefeiqiwuzhengce,jiangzhongdianzhuanyidaokongzhifeiqiwuxunhuanliyong(3r:reduce、reuse、recycle)debiyaoxing,tuijinxunhuanxingshehuidexingcheng。1991nian,riben《feiqiwuchulifa》dedaoxiuding,zaifalvdemudezhongzhuijialekongzhipaifang、ziyuanzailiyonghuishoudexiangguanneirong。tongnian,zaitongshangchanyeshengzhudaoxiazhidingle《youguancujinziyuanyouxiaoliyongdefalv》(ziyuanyouxiaoliyongcujinfa),guidinglechanpindeshejihezhizaohuanjieyingzhuzhonghuanjingbaohu,yituidongqiyefeiqiwudezizhuhuishoujizaishengliyongdeng。gezhongzailiyongfaguiyexiangjizhiding,1995nianhe1998nianxiangjichutaile《rongqijibaozhuangwuhuishouliyongfa》、《jiadianhuishouliyongfa》deng,danxiangchanpindehuishouliyongchulifadejianshebuduanwanshan,youciyecujinleziyuanlajidefenleishouji,bingwanshanleerwuyingleiduicezhidaofangzhenjitebiecuoshifa,huanjingxiaoyizhubuxianxian。1997nianzhi2011nian,ribenfeiqiwufenshaosheshideerwuyingpaifangliangjianshaole99%。

jinruxinshijiyilai,ribendehuanjingbaohuzhengcecuoshishangshengdaoyigexindezhanlvegaodu。2000nian,ribenzhiding《xunhuanxingshehuixingchengtuijinfa》yijianshexunhuanxingshehuiweimubiao,mingqueshehuiquantichengyuandezerenheyiwu,yifatuijinfeiqiwudezhengquechulihehuanjingzaisheng,yiqidadaoquanshengmingzhouqideziyuanxunhuan。

哒坪胎youcikejian,mianduituchudehuanjingwenti,ribenzhengfurenshidaojiandandefeiqiwumoduanchulibingbunengconggenbenshangjiejuewenti,youxiaojiejuelajijianlianghezailiyongwenticaishigenbenchulu,erlajifenleishishixianlajichuliziyuanhua、jianlianghua、wuhaihuadezhongyaobuzhou,yeshishixianlajiziyuanhuahuishouliyong、bianfeiwuweizaishengziyuan、shixianziyuanxunhuanliyongdeguanjianhuanjie。

二、日本城市垃圾分类可借鉴的经验

哒坪胎ribenhuanjingyoumei、jiedaozhengjie,hendachengdushangdeyiyuzailajichulifangmianqudedechenggong,youqishilajifenleizhidudeyouxiaoshishi。ribendelajichulidetedianshifenleixizhiyanjin、chulifangfafuzafansuo、guominjijixinggao,yijiqiangyoulidefalvjichuhejianguancuoshi。


(一)细致的垃圾分类


1.bianzhizhidaoshouce。zhengfuweishiminbianxielexiangjindelajifenleihetoufangzhidaoshouce,tuwenbingmao,qianxianyidong。ribengeshizhencunzailajidefenleishangyousuochayi,shimingenjujuzhudidefenleiguidingjinxingtoufang。yibanfenweikeranlaji、bukeranlaji、ziyuanlaji、dajianlaji、youhailajidengwudalei,wudaleixiayouzuolegengweixizhidefenlei,youxiedifangzaiwudaleixiafenyou70gexiaolei。duiyuziyuanlajidefenlei,meizhonglajiyoubutongdetoufangfangfa,keranlajihebukeranlajijunxuyaozhuangzaigoumaidezhuanyongdaizili。duiyuziyuanlaji,juminyaozijizaijiazhongduilajixianjinxingyuchuli,rurongqibaozhuangsuliaoxuyaoxidiaowugouhoufangrurongqihuotouming、bantoumingdedaizi,suliaopingheyilaguanyaoxiganjing,chuyulajiyaoliganshuifen,dahuojihepenwuqipingzilideyetidoubixuyongjin,zhixiangxuyaochaikaizhehaobingyongshengzikunshang。ruguoshidajianlaji,zexuyaomailajiquan,rangzhuanmendelajichuligongsilaituozou,budesuiyidiuqi。

哒坪胎lajihuishouguochengdeyaoqiuyehenxizhi,yijianwupindebutongbuwei,kenengshuyubutongdefenlei。yikuangquanshuipingweili,pinggaishuyuyilei,pingshenqueshuyulingwaiyilei,bixufenkaitoufang,xuyaowanchengyixiadiuqibuzhou:jiandanshuixi、quxiapinggai、sidiaobiaoqian,fangrutouming、bantoumingdedaizili,genjugediguidingdelajiziyuanwushoujirili,anshi、anliang、dingdiantoufang。

2.shelizhuanmenshoujishijianjididian。weicujinziyuanlajidefenleishouji,ribenzhengfuzhuanmenzhidinglelajifenleirili,genjuhuishoulajidexingzhianshijianjinxingfenlei、jizhonghuishou,butongxingzhilajibixuanguidingshijiantoufangdaozhidingshoujichu,bimianlajihunzhuang。zheizhongqiangzhixingcuoshidezhangqishishihejianchi,cushiribenguominxingchenglegenshendigudelajifenleiyishi。meinianniandi,shimindouhuishoudaoyifenzhengfufafangdecinianlajifenleishouji“rili”,zai“rili”zhongmingqueziyuanlajizhonglei、shoujideshijian、huishoufangfadeng,fangbiangongzhonganzhao“rili”diufanglaji。ribenchengshidaolubianxianjianlajitong,bianlidiandelajifenleitoufangxiang,shibushaolvrizhongguoyoukede“jiuming”sheshi。

哒坪胎lajidechulifangshiyinshizhencuneryi,yibancaiyongfenxuanhuishou、tianmai、fenshaodeng。duiyudajianlajiheziyuanlaji,jingziyuanzaishengzhongxinfenxuanchuli,tiquyoujiawuziyuanhualiyong,keranxingcanzhayukeranlajiyiqifenshaochuli,bukerancanzhajifenshaohui、feihuidengzaizuizhongchulichangtianmaichuli。ribenlajifenleidejizhi,youxiaojiejueletianmaichangdiderongliangzhiyue、fenshaosheshiyunxingxiaolvdi、wuranwupaifangdengwenti。tongshi,houxuchulishouduanshilajifenleidezhenzhengtuishou,rujinggangxianyudianchangshi•xiaoshandinglajifenshaosheshi,peitaojianshelelajizaiziyuanhuasheshi,lajichulixingchengchanyehuayitiaolongtixi。

(二)民众参与度高

哒坪胎renheyixiangzhidudeshishi,doulibukaizhengfuqiangyoulidetuidonghegongzhongdecanyupeihe。zailajifenleishishishang,ribenzhengfuzaizhidushejishangzuodaolejingxinguanlihezhoudaoanpai,shouxiancongzhongxiaoxuehuanjingjiaoyurushou,balajiwentixiejinxiaoxueshengshehuikekeben,congxiaocongzaozhuaqi。tongshi,zaifenleizuzhishishishang,rangminzhongzhixiaofenleizhishi、dingshidingdiantoufangguiju,rongrudazhongshenghuodefangfangmianmian。ribenminzhongzaizhengfudeqianglituidongxia,congbeidongzhixingdaozijuezuncongbingyangchengyizhongxiguan,suiranyejinglilezhangqiguocheng,dancanyuyishiyizhihenqiang,zheiyeyuanyuribenminzhongzhangqixingchengdehuanbaoyishihexiezuoyishi。duikehuishouxunhuanshiyongdelaji,zaichuligongchengzhong,tamendouhuidiefangzhengqibingkunzhahao,yibianyuhuishougongrendecaozuo,duiyuyoukenengchanshengweixiandelaji,huiyuxianzuoyixiechuli,ruyongguodedaiyouyalidepenwuguan,yaozhayigekong,yifangzhibaozha。

(三)法律体系完备

哒坪胎ribendelajifenlei,wuyishiquanshijiezuifuza、zuixizhideyitaoxitong。erduonianlai,ribenjuminyangedezhixingzhezheixiexizhidaokekedechulibanfa,youxuezhejiangqiguiyinyuriben“jizhi”deminzujingshenheyangezunshouguizedetexing,erbizherenwei,zhajinzhidudelongzi,caishichenggongdeyaojue。lajifenleidejudachengbenhegongzuoliang,zhikaozhengfuduanxianranwufashixian,yinciribenxuanzelerangjuminfentanlajifenleiheyuchulidezeren。ruqianwensuoshu,ribencong1954nianbanbu《qingsaofa》kaishi,jingguo60duoniandefazhan,xingchengleyijibenfa、zonghexingfa、zhuanxiangfaweiyituodelajifenlei、huishou、jianlianghuachulidefalvtixi。1991nianbanbude《ziyuanyouxiaoliyongcujinfa》tichule“ziyuanlaji”degainian。tongniandui《feiqiwuchulifa》jinxingxiugai,tichuzaikongzhizongliangdetongshi,shixianlajide“zaiziyuanhua”。ribendelajifenleishoujihezailiyongyijingrongrujuminshenghuo,bingshoudaodalizhichi。zaigezhongfeiqiwuhuishoufalvfaguidebuduanchutaixia,lajifenleideguizeyebuduanwanshan,zuizhongxingchenglexianzaidefenleigeju。

xianzaideribenlajifenleichulitixizhong,zerenfeichangfenming:lajifenleihetoufangshijuminzeren;zizhiti(zhengfu)zefuzelajideshouji、banyun、zhongjianchulihezuizhongchuli;zhiyuziyuanlajidezailiyongwenti,zebeijiaojilehuishouyezhe,jiyushangyemubiaoqujiejue。youxiedifangguidinglejuefakuan,“bufatouqi”kenengbeichuyigaoefajin;yeyouhenduodifangmeiyoujutidechufacuoshi,zhuyaokaolinlijianduhejuminzijue。bizhezaicanguanjinggangxianyudianchangshixiaoshandinglajifenshaosheshijilajizaiziyuanhuasheshishi,guanchadaoyigexijie。dangdizhengfuzhuanmenpaisanminggongwuyuanzhuchangbangong,zhuyaozhizejiushijiandusheshizhengchanghefayunxing,chongfenzuodaoledifangzhengfuduigonggongshiyedeyouxiaojianguan。

三、我国城市垃圾分类工作现状

(一)垃圾分类工作历程

哒坪胎xianjieduanwoguodelajifenleizhongdianshichengshishenghuolaji,woguochengshishenghuolajifenleigongzuozuizaokaishiyu20shiji90niandai,zaishanghai、beijing、guangzhoudengchengshizhenduixiaofanweineidejuminquhedanweikaizhanlelajifenleishidiangongzuo。zhuyaoshitichulajifenleidegainianheyishi,dongyuanjuminjinxingqianqifenlei,danyunshuchuzhiguochengjibenrengshihunhezaiyiqi。

2000nian4yue,dangshidejianshebuxuandingbeijing、shanghai、guangzhou、nanjing、shenzhen、hangzhou、shamen、guilindeng8gechengshizuoweilajifenleideshidianchengshi。jinxingfenleishoujidezhongdianshifeizhi、suliao、jinshuheyouduyouhaidefeidianchi。zheixieshidianchengshijiehegedishijizaituixingshenghuolajifenleishoujideshijianguochengzhong,tansuochuleyixiejuyoudifangtesedefenleishoujifangfa,lajifenleigongzuoqudeyidingchengxiao,yezhubutansuochufenleidejibenlujing。

哒坪胎2015nian5yue,zhufanghechengxiangjianshebu、fazhangaigewei、caizhengbu、huanjingbaohubu、shangwubulianheyinfale《guanyugongbudiyipishenghuolajifenleishifanchengshi(qu)detongzhi》,quedingbeijingshidongchengqudeng26gechengshi(qu)weidiyipishenghuolajifenleishifanchengshi(qu)。zheiyicidelajifenleizhubushenrutuijin,bushaodiquxingchengleyouyidingjiejiantuiguangjiazhidemoshi。

哒坪胎2017nian3yue,guowuyuanbangongtingyinfale《shenghuolajifenleizhidushishifangan》(yixiajiancheng《shishifangan》),jianglajifenleifanweijinyibukuoda,mingque2020niandiqianjiangzai46gechengshiqiangzhishishilajifenlei。baokuo4gezhixiashi、27geshenghuichengshi、5gejihuadanlieshiyijizhufangchengxiangjianshebudengbumenquedingde10gediyipishenghuolajifenleishifanchengshi。chucizhiwai,youzhonggongzhongyangheguowuyuangongtongquedingdefujian、guizhou、jiangxisangeshengtaiwenmingshiyanqu,yejianglajifenleigongzuozuoweishiyandeyixiangzhongyaorenwu,zaiquanshengfanweineixuanzeyixieshixianjixiangcunkaizhanxiangguangongzuo。

shouciyouguowuyuanfabude《shishifangan》,zaizongjiefenxiwoguoduonianlailajifenleijingyanhejiaoxundejichushang,tichudefenleifanwei、fangshihebanfadengfangmiandenggengjuyoukecaozuoxing,yeshidegedigenjuzishentedianlinghuodiaozheng。jinnianlaiquanguogediduilajifenleigongzuorenshichengdumingxiantigao,anzhao《shishifangan》deyaoqiu,fenfenchutaiguizhangbanfa,jiadaxuanchuanjiaoyulidu,zaifenleifangshi、fenleibanfa、fenleiyunshujichuzhidengfangmiandoukaizhanleduozhongyouyidetansuo。liru,shanghaijianlile“lvsezhanghu”degongzuomoshi,tigaojuminduifenleidecanyulvhetoufangzhunquelv;zhejiangshengxingchengle“ganshiliangfenfa、huanbaojinjili”weizhuyaocuoshide“hugemoshi”、“sanzhanjingquefenlei”dehuzhoumoshi、“dangjian+zhuliquanyulajifenlei”depujiangmoshidengduozhongshenghuolajifenleihuishoumoshi。

(二)现有垃圾分类方式

jiyu《shishifangan》jianyidefenleifangshi,quanguogedigenjuquyutediantichulegezidefenleifangshi, 46gechengshidefenleifangshizhuyaoyisifenfaweizhu,sanfenfa、wufenfaweifu。qizhongyou29gechengshicaiqusifenfadelajifenleifangshi,fenweichuyulaji、kehuishouwu、youhailajiheqitalajideng;5gechengshi(qu)caiqusanfenfa,zhuyaofenweiyouhailaji、kehuishouwuheqita;2gechengshi(qu)caiquganshilajifenleifangshi;beijingshi(qu)caiquwufenfa,fenweicanchulaji、jianzhulaji、kehuishouwu、youhailajiheqitalaji。qita8gechengshigenjufenleiquyu、fenleizhutidebutong,caiyongbutongdefenleifangshi,liru,hangzhoushidezhuzhaiqu(juzhuxiaoqu、gongyuqu、bieshuqudengshenghuozhuzhaiquyu)yibanfenweiyouhailaji、kehuishouwu、chufanglaji、qitalajisilei;danweiqu(zhengfujiguan、xuexiao、qishiyedanwei、dashadengbangongchangsuo)zhong, youjizhonggongcandeyibanfenweiyouhailaji、kehuishouwu、canchulaji、qitalajisilei;wujizhonggongcandeyibanfenweiyouhailaji、kehuishouwu、qitalajisanlei;gonggongquyu(chezhan、gongyuan、tiyuchangguan、shangchangdenggonggongchangsuo),yibanfenweikehuishouwu、qitalajiliangleihuoqitalajiyilei。shanghaishidefenleishi:zhuangxiulaji、dajianlaji、canchulaji(canchufeiqiyouzhi)、kuzhiluoyedengzhuanxiangfenliuguanli,richangshenghuolajianzhaoyouhailaji、kehuishouwu、shilajiheganlajisileijinxingfenlei。

(三)我国垃圾分类的主要问题与建议

1.falvfaguiyoudaijianquan。woguomuqianguanyulajifenleiguanlidexiangguanfalvfaguirengbujianquan,quefaguojiaqiangzhilidebaozhang,jibianyouxiewenjianzhongyousuotiji,yeguoyuyuanzelongtong,yigulichangdaoweizhu,gangxingyueshuhekecaozuoxingbuqiang。lajifenleishejimeigeshengchanqiye、meigejiatinghegeren。jiejianribenjingyan,zhidingzhuanmendelajifenleifalvfaguishizaibixing,yaojinyibuwanshanguojia、shengjiheshijisangecengmianlajiguanlifaguizhengce,luoshishengchanzhezerenzhi,zhidingmingquedejianglihechengfacuoshi,qieyangezhixingbingjianguan,youxiaoyindaogongzhongdelajitoufangxingweiheqiyedelajichulixingwei。

哒坪胎2.lajifenleijiziyuanliyongdequanliantiaoshangweidatong。woguolajifenleishangchuyushidianjieduan,zhengcefaguizhidushangbuwanshan、zerenzhutishangweimingque、sheshishebeishangweijianrong、juminxiguanshangweiyangcheng、shehuicanyuchengduhezijintourubuzu,shidelajifenleizhengtifugaimianjiaodi,muqianshichangshangweixingchengchengshudehangaishouji、yunshu、xiaoshou、jiagong、chengpinxiaoshoudengquanliantiaochanyetixi。canchulajichulihoudechanpinchulushangcunzaiwenti,xiangguanchanpindetuiguangyingyongbiaozhunhezhengceshangweichutai,ziyuanhuachanpinchuluwufadedaobaozhang。jianyiguojiashelizhuanxiangzijin,yongyuzhichilajifenleijiziyuanliyongdequanchanyeliantiaotixijianshe,zhutuilajifenleihezailiyonggongzuodekaizhan。

哒坪胎3.gongzhongyishijixuanchuanfangshiyoudaitisheng。woguolajifenleidexuanchuanfanweihefangshirengbijiaoboruo,muqianxuanchuancengmianzhuyaozaishequ,yituoshegong、wuye、shehuizuzhi、dangyuanzhiyuanzhedengkaizhan,gaocengci、dafanweidexuanchuanyouxian,zhuliumeitizhichilidurengranbuzu。gongzhongyishideyangchengbushiyichaoyixideshiqing,zhengfuzaiqianglituidonglajifenleiguochengzhongdefuzerenhejingxihuaguanli,youzhuyutigaogongzhongderenzhihecanyu。zaixuanchuanfangmian,haiyingzhuzhongcongjiaoyurushou,congwawazhuaqi,yixiaoshouladashou,daidongjiatingchengyuanheshenbianren,xingchengquanshehuigongtongcanyulajifenleidelianghaofengqi。tongshi,yingchongfenfahuizhuanyejigouhexingyezhuanjiadezuoyong,yongzhuanyeshijiaozhidaogongzhonglejielajifenleidezuoyongheyiyi,yindaogongzhongzijuejianglajifenleirongrurichangshenghuoyishi。

四、结语

哒坪胎lajifenleishixijinpingzongshujigaoduzhongshi、qinzibushu、zhelituidongde“guanjianxiaoshi”。shixinglajifenlei,guanxiguangdarenminqunzhongshenghuohuanjing,guanxijieyueshiyongziyuan,yeshishehuiwenmingshuipingdeyigezhongyaotixian。

zongtieryan,woguolajifenleigongzuorengchuyutansuojieduan,yuantoufenlei、shouji、yunshu、chuzhidexuduohuanjiexuyaodatong。muqianwoguoyijibenxingchengweishengtianmaihefenshaofadianbingjudejishugeju,jinguanyulixiangzhuangtaidefenleichulisheshixiangbihaiyoujiaodachaju,danyijingweipubiantuixinglajifenleizhidudiandinglejibendeyingjianjichu。

lajifenleishiyixiangxizhiruweideshehuizhiligongzuo,qichengxiaogaodihejindukuaiman,hendachengdushangqujueyushehuidefazhihuashuiping。zaiguowuyuanchangwuhuiyijinqitongguode《gutifeiwuwuranhuanjingfangzhifa(xiudingcaoan)》zhong,shoucijiangshenghuolajifenleizhiduyifalvxingshigudingxialai。《shanghaishishenghuolajiguanlitiaoli》yijingbanbu,jinnian7yue1riqi,shanghaishijianglvxianjinrulajiqiangzhifenleishidai。

lajifenleishijiujiuweigongdeshiye,bukenengyicuerjiu,xuyaoyidingdingzidejingshentoushenqizhong,xiaofangribenjianglajifenleigenshendiguderongrujuminrichangshenghuoyishi,bingtongguowanshandefalvfaguitizhijinxingbaozhang,chizhiyihengjiayituidong,ranglajifenleigongzuochengweiyizhongxinshishang。