哒坪胎视界

曹磊 | 日本城市轨道交通健康发展的特点及启示
发布日期:2018-10-12 信息来源:哒坪胎研究 访问次数: 字号:[ ]

【摘要】

ribenshishijieshangchengshiguidaojiaotongzuifadadeguojiazhiyi,tongguoduoniandechixugaishan,yijibenshixianlechengshiguidaojiaotongdejiankangfazhan。jingyanbiaoming,chengshiguidaojiaotongjiankangfazhandeqiantishitigonggaoshuipingdegonggongfuwu,tongshijingyingzhutinenggoushixiancaiwukechixu。woguochengshiguidaojiaotongfazhanzhengmianlinzheyoushuliangxiangzhiliangzhuanbiandeguoduqi,yingjiyufazhanxianzhuanghetedian,youzhenduixingdexiangribenxuexi,tongguofazhiyindaoyubaozhang、yunyongshichangshouduan、jianchi“yirenweiben”,zaichixubuduandegaijinxia,zhubushixianchengshiguidaojiaotongdejiankangfazhan。

jiankangshizhiyigerenzaishenti、jingshenheshehuidengfangmiandouchuyulianghaodezhuangtai,yinshendaochengshiguidaojiaotong,qihanyishiyitigonggaoshuipingdegonggongfuwuweiqianti,tongshijingyingzhutinenggoushixiancaiwukechixu。guoneichengshiguidaojiaotongmuqianchengxiandegaofengqixianliu、anjianfansuo、huanchengbubian、wuzhangaisheshibuzudengxianxiang,yanzhongyingxianglechengkedechuxingtiyan,yugaoshuipingdegonggongfuwuxiangjushenyuan;lingwai,chengshiguidaojiaotongjianshetouzijuda、yunyingchengbengaoang,erpiaojiaxiangduidilian,jinkaopiaowushouruwufafugaijianshechengbenheyunyingchengben,guoneidaduoshuchengshichengshiguidaojiaotongqiyemianlinzhecaiwunanyichixudenanti。

哒坪胎ribenshishijieshangchengshiguidaojiaotongzuifadadeguojiazhiyi,tongguoduoniandechixugaishan,yijibenshixianlechengshiguidaojiaotongdejiankangfazhan。benwencongfazhihua、shichanghuaherenxinghuasangejiaoduchufa,duiribenchengshiguidaojiaotongjiankangfazhandetedianjinxinglezongjie。

一、日本城市轨道交通健康发展的特点

(一)法制化

zairibenmeiyouzhuanmenzhenduichengshiguidaojiaotongerzhidingdefalv,ershijiangsuoyoufuhehuoxiangjintiedaozhishitexing(zhuanyouluquan、gudingdaoxiang)dezhishinaruyigefalvtixijinxingtongyiguanli。genjuriben《tiedaoshiyefa》ji《tiedaoshiyefashixingguize》,tiedaobaokuochu《guidaofa》(zhuyaozhenduilumianfushe,bingzunshoudaolujiaotongguizedexitongzhishi,ruyouguidianche)yiwaidesuoyoutiedao,jutibaokuo:putongtiedao(xinganxian、yibantielu)、xuanchuishitiedao(xuanguashidangui)、kuazuoshitiedao(kuazuoshidangui)、zidongdaoguitiedao(agt、apm)、wuguidianche、lansuotiedao(suodao)、xuanfushitiedao(cixuanfu)、shangshutiedaoyiwaidetiedao。kejian,chengshiguidaojiaotongchuyouguidianchewaidequanbuzhishiyinaru“tiedao”defanchou。

ribenchengshiguidaojiaotongtourongzi、jianshe、yunyingdenggexianggongzuo,doushiyifalvweiyiju,zaizhengfuzhidaojianduxiajinxingde。yichengshiguidaojiaotongweiduixiangdefalvfagui,zuizhuyaoyou《tiedaoshiyefa》(1986nian12yue4rifalvdi92hao,2016nianfalvdi19haoxiugai)he《tiedaoyingyefa》(1900nian3yue16rifalvdi65hao),zhidingleguojiaduiguidaojiaotongshiyeshixingxuke、renkedepizhun、jianduheguanlizhiduyijijianshe、yunyingdexiangguanyaoqiu。ribenguidaojiaotongfaguitixijuyouyixiatedian:

1.guidaojiaotongjiansheyunyingdequanguochengjianguan

ribenguidaojiaotongfalvfaguitixi,budanfalvfaguishuliangduo,erqiebijiaowanshan、quanmianhexizhi,shejiguidaojiaotongjiansheheyunyingdegegejieduan,baokuoguihua、sheji、shigong、sheshiheshebei、yunyingjiguanli、yizhidaoyunyingtingzhi、xianlubaofei,douyouxiangyingdefalvfagui。

2.jianlileyangedeshenbao、xukezhidu

zaiguidaojiaotongfangmian,buguancongshihezhongguidaojiaotongshiyedouyaoxiangguotujiaotongdachenshenbao,yidedaopizhunhehuodexuke。zheishiyizhongyangedeshenbaoxukezhidu,qineirongbaokuochengshiguidaojiaotongguihua、danxiangguidaojiaotongshiyelixiang、guidaojiaotongshigong、daoluxiabushigong、shigongfangfa、wuxidaikuanshiyederending,tebiesheji、shigongqixiandengdouxiangguotujiaotongshengtichushenqing,bingxiangxiguidingshenbaodeneironghexiangmu。

3.zhidingduoqudaorongzi、duozhongbuzhuzhidu,tixianzhengfudezhichigulixingzhengce

ribenquelileduozhongrongzizhidu,baokuozhengfubuzhuzhidu、wuxihedixidaikuanzhidu、faxingjianshezhaiquan、shiyongzhefudanheshouyizhefudan、jiansheguidaojiaotongjianshejijindengyixiliezhidu,zhichihetuidongguidaojiaotongdejiansheheyunying,qudemingxiandexiaoguo[3]。

4.quebaoyunshuanquan,guanchuanguidaojiaotongsuoyoufalvfagui

1951nian,ribenyunshushengjiuzaiquebaoyunshuanquandeshenglingzhong,duiyunshuguanlitichuleyingzunshoudesandagangling:quebaoyunshuanquanshiyunshudeshengming,zunshoucaozuoguifanshiyunshuanquandejichu,zuoyeyanzhengxingshiquebaoyunshuanquandebiyaotiaojian。zaisuoyoudefalvfaguizhong,douhuizhongshenheqiangdiaoyunshuanquan、yunshuanquanshiyunshuxingyedezuigaolinian。

5.jianliguidaojiaotonganquanxinxifabuzhidu

哒坪胎weileqianghuaguidaojiaotongchengkeheyulundejianduzuoyong,tigaoguidaojiaotongcongyerenyuandeanquanyishi,ribenjianlileguidaojiaotonganquanxinxifabuzhidu。《tiedaoshiyefa》mingqueguiding:①guotujiaotongdachenyifalvweiyiju,duiguidaojiaotongfashengzaihaideshijiqingkuang,duituogui、chongtutingyundengyunyingshigu、guanyuguidaojiaotongshiyedegaishanhexingzhengzhidaoyijian、anquansheshidetouzi、yuanquanyouguandexinxidengyaojishixiangshehuifabu、gonggao;②geguidaojiaotongshiye,zaimeigeshiyenianduyaojianganquanyunyingdefangzhen、anquanyunyingzhuangtai、xingdongjihuadengyuanquanyouguandexinxixiangshehuifabu。

哒坪胎6.jianliyunshu、jiaotongzhengceshenyihuizhidu

哒坪胎zhanhou,ribenzhengfuzaizhongyanggeshengtingjidifanggejixingzhengjiguanzhong,pubianshelilediaocha、shenyizhengfumouxiexingzhengshixiangdezixunjigou,zongchengweishenyihui。shenyihuizuoweizhengfuxingzhengjiguandefushujigou,yifalvxingshiquelihouxingchengyizhongzhidu,zaizhengfugexiangjuecezhongfahuizhongyaozuoyong。shenyihuitongchangyouzhengfu、qiye、yanjiuzhe、xiaofeizhegefangmianzhuanjiadaibiaozucheng,shenyifangan、tichuyijian,yigongzhengfujueceshicankao[4]。

7.shelidulishigudiaochazhidu

2008nianribenzhidingle《yunshuanquanweiyuanhuishezhifa》,genjugaifalvguiding,yunshuanquanweiyuanhuiyijuyouduliquanxiandeshenfenchangsheyuguotujiaotongsheng。shezhiyunshuanquanweiyuanhuidemude,shiweikeguan、kexuedediaochaguidaojiaotongshiguhezhongdaanquanyinhuandeyuanyin,conggongzheng、zhonglidelichangyanjiufangzhishiguhezhongdashiguyinhuanzaicifashenghejianqingshiguzaochengdesunhaichengdu。

(二)市场化

哒坪胎ribentongguoduoyuanhuajingyingzhutideyouxujingzheng,duoyuanhuadejingyingcelve,yijizhengfuduoyuanhuatourongzidezhidusheji,shiribenchengshiguidaojiaotongjibenshixianleshichanghua,tashiribenchengshiguidaojiaotongdeyijiankangfazhandezhongyaobaozhang。

哒坪胎1. duoyuanhuadejingyingzhuti

congzibensuoyoujiaodu,ribenchengshichengshiguidaojiaotongdejingyingzhutikeyifenweisanlei:minjianziben、minjianzibenyuzhongyangzhengfujidifangzhengfuhuoqiyegongtongchuzichengli、zhongyangzhengfuhuodifangzhengfu;congfalvjiaoduchufa,keyifenwei:sirenfaren(minjianziben、minjianzibenyuzhongyangzhengfujidifangzhengfuhuoqiyegongtongchuzichengli)、teshufaren(zhongyangzhengfuhuodifangzhengfu)、difanggonggongtuanti(difangzhengfu)。yiribenshoudouquan(hangaicichengxian、栃muxian、qunmaxian、qiyuxian、qianyexian、dongjingdou、shennaichuanxianyijishanlixian,mianji13,514 km2,2018nianrenkouwei4417wanren)weili,53tiaotiedaoxianluyue2560kmyou16jiatiedaogongsifuzeyunying,qizhongjrdongribenfuzeyunying18tiaoxianlu,12jiasitiegongsigongyunying20tiaoxianlu,xiangjianbiao1。

2. youxudeliangxingjingzheng

哒坪胎zhengyinweiyoulezugoufadadeguidaojiaotongwangluoheduoyuanhuadejingyingzhuti,ribenchengkedaodatongyigedidiankeyixuanzebutongyunyinggongsidexianlu。butongyunyinggongsiweilezhuiqiugengdalirun,dougenjugezideyoushinulixiyinchengkechengzuobengongsidexianlu,zhuyaofanyingzaibutongdepiaojiashuipingshang。zongtishuolai,ribenchengshiguidaojiaotongzhong,dixiatie、jr(ribentielugongsi,qianshenweiribenguoyoutiedao)hesitiegeyouyoushi,dixiatieyibanzhanjuzhechengshihexinweizhi,youwaiweixianlushusongdaliangkeliu,meiyoutaidajingzhengyali,suoyipiaojiazuigao。jrhesitiedejingzhengzexiangdangjilie,youyujrhesitiezaichengdanshijiaotongqinkeliudegongnengjibenzhonghe,bufenxianluyexianghuzhonghe。jrdeyoushizaiyuyuanguotieluwangjiduiwaishuniubujudexianjie,lvxingsudujiaositieyegenggao。ersitiedeyoushiyituoduoyuanhuadejingying,shidangjiangdipiaojiaxiyinkeliu,tongguoyunshuyiwaideshiyetigaozongheshouyishuiping。dongjingshoudouquangetiedaoyunyinggongsichengdankeliudezhanbiqingkuangjiantu1。


哒坪胎youtu1kezhi,2005(pingcheng17nian)shoudouquantiedaokeliuzhong,jrzhan39.2%,dixiatiezhan21.9%,sitiezhan38.9% ;2010(pingcheng22nian),jrzhan37.2%,dixiatiezhan23.1%,sitiezhan39.7%;2015(pingcheng27nian),jrzhan37.2%,dixiatiezhan24.2%,sitiezhan38.6%。jr、dixiatie、sitiesanfanggenjugeziyoushiyouxujingzheng,10yunianjiangezifendandetiedaokeliubilijibenwending。

3. duoyuanhuadejingyingzhanlve

哒坪胎ribenzhengfusuiranduichengshiguidaojiaotongjianshejinxingbutie,danbuduiyunyingqiyejinxingyunyingbutie,yunyingqiyexuyaozifuyingkui。ribenchengshiguidaojiaotongyunyingqiyeyouqishisitieqiyecaiqudeshitiedaokeyunweizhongxin,yiwuyekaifajizulin、shangyedichanyunying、gongjiaoyunying、chuzucheyunying、lvyouguanguangdengweifuyedejingyingmoshi[2]。cong1955niankaishizhangda20niandejingjigaosuzengzhangqi,sitieqiyetongguozhu、fuyexianghubuchongdexingshigaoxiaodikaizhanzhejingyinghuodong,diandinglezuoweichengshizongheyunyingshangdejichu。zaihoulaideribenjingjizhengtibujingqishiqi,sitieqiyerengranjubeicongshidaxingchengshizonghekaifahuodongdenengli。ribengongyou14jiadaxingsitieqiyezaidachengshijiaotongzhongfahuizhongyaozuoyong,tamendeshouzhibijibenshangdoudadaohuochaoguole100%[2],qigenbenyuanyinzhuyaoshiribensitieqiyecaiquleduoyuanhuajingyingzhanlvesuodailaidelianghaojieguo。

(三)人性化

哒坪胎jiyufazhideyindaohebaozhangyijishichanghuadeyunzuohefuwu,ribenchengshiguidaojiaotongtuxianle“yirenweiben”degaoshuipingfuwu。yugaoshuipingdefuwucaihuixiyinyuduodechengkequxuanzechengshiguidaojiaotongchuxing,congerjiyunyingqiyedailaiyuduodezhengxiaoyi、jichengshifazhandailaiyuduodezhengxiaoyi。ribenchengshiguidaojiaotonggaoshuipingdefuwutixianyixiajigefangmian。

1. duocengci、duozhishi

ribendechengshiguidaojiaotongwangluo,anzhishifenlei,zhuyaoyouditie、putongtielu、kuazuoshidangui、zidongdaoxiangguidaodenggoucheng;ancengcifenlei,zhuyaoyoushiquxian、shiyuxian、zhuanyongxian(konggangxian、disinixian)deng。yidongjingweili,putongtieluzhanzhenggewangluozhangdude80%yishang,ditiezhan12%,qiyuweikuazuoshidangui、zidongdaoxiangguidaodengzhishi。youyudongjingdedanzhongxinchengshibuju,chengshizhongxindequanrichuxingqiangdujiaogao,erchengshiwaiweichengxianmingxiandechaoxitexinghechaogaofengtexing。yinci,ditiexianjizhongzaishanshouxianneidehexinqu,caiyongdanxianyunying,manzulezhongxinquanrichuxingqiangdujiaogaodetexing;jr、sitiedengchengshiguidaojiaotongfuwuwaiweishiyu、shijiaoquyu,duoweidimiantieluxingshi,caiyongkuaxian、gongxianyunying、linghuobianzumoshi,yingduitongqinkeliuchaoxihechaogaofengtexing。

2. linghuodeyunyingmoshi

哒坪胎ribenchengshichengshiguidaojiaotongyouqishiputongtielu,yunyingmoshishifenlinghuo,genjukeyunxuqiukaixinggezhongyuexinghequjianche,zaitongyixianlushangbaokuozhanzhantingmanche、dazhankuaiche(pukuai、zhikuai)、zhidatekuai,binggenjukeliuqingkuanglinghuobianzu。zheizhonglinghuodeyunyingmoshichongfenduijielebutonglvkedechuxingxuqiu,tigaoleyunshuxiaolv,jianshaolewuxiaochengbenzhichu。 

3. gaoxiaodehuanchengshuniu

ribenchengshiguidaojiaotongdehuanchengfangbianzhuyaotixianzailianggefangmian,yishiduotiaoguidaojiaotongxianlujizhonghuancheng,rudajianghuxianhewei36km2nei,gong133zuochezhan,qizhong2zuo5xianhuanchengchezhan、5zuo4xianhuanchengchezhan、10zuo3xianhuanchengchezhan、18zuo2xianhuanchengchezhan。ershiyiguidaohuanchengchezhanweizhongxin,jianggonggongqichezhan、chuzuchezhan、dixiatingchechangdengdoubaohanzainei,xingchengyigedaxingdelitikongjian,weichengkehuanchengtigonglefeichangbianlidetiaojian,chengkezhixutongguowanshandedaoxiangbiaoshixiajinxinglitihuancheng。

4. zhitongyunying

哒坪胎weilejianshaogexianluyouqiyuxiangxinxianludehuanchengshijian,ribengeguidaogongsilianhefaqilewaiweixianluyuhexinquxianluguantongyunyingdeyewu。rudongjingdouyou10tiaoditietongputongtielulianhefaqikuagongsi、kuaquyudezhitongchefuwu,congershiliechedefuwubanjingyoushizhongxinxiangwaiyanzhanle50duokm。zheiyangdezhitongfuwujianshaolehuanchengdepinlv,yehuanjielegedahuanchengzhandeyongjichengdu,jiaqianglezhongxinquyuzhoubianchengjiaodelianxi,jieshenglechengkeshijian。

哒坪胎5. chezhanzhoubiandeyitihua(yixinsuzhanweili)

xinsuzhanbuzhishiyigechezhan,ershibaokuojr、jingwang、jingwangxinxian、xiaotianji、dixiatiewanzhineixian、douyingdixiatiexinsuxian、douyingdixiatiedajianghuxianqigechezhandezuhe。xinsuzhanmuqianyijingchaoguole200gechukou(jrxinsuzhanbenshenjiuyou47gechukou),2016nianxinsuzhanripingjunchengjiangrenciwei347wan。chezhanzhoubian,wulunzaidishanghaishidixiadouyoushifenmijideshangyefuwusheshi,zhongduochurukouhetongdaojiangchezhanhezhoubianshangyesheshirongweiyiti。chezhanyuzhoubiandeyitihua,jicujinleshangye、fuwuyedejiju,yecujinlechezhandekeliuxiaoyi,dadaogongshenggongrongdezhuangtai。

哒坪胎6. chezhanzhoubiandezonghekaifa(yiseguzhanweili)

seguzhanhuijile4jiaguidaogongside9tiaoxianlu:jrshanshouxian、jrqijingxian、jrxiangnanxian、dongjitianyuandoushixian、dongjidonghengxian、jingwangjingtouxian、ditieyinzuoxian、ditiebanzangmenxian、ditiefudouxinxian,meitiandehuanchengrenshuchaoguo300wanrenci,shiribenjinciyuxinsuzhandedierdajiaotongshuniu,yeshishijieshangrijunhuanchengrenshupaimingdierdejuxingjiaotongshuniu[5]。

哒坪胎seguzhanzaigaizaozhichu,jiuyichengshiguidaojiaotongzhandianweizhongxinzhidinglegaiquyudeguihuadaoze,zaiguihuafanweineidesuoyouxiangmudouxuyaoyangegenjuguihuadaozejinxingkaifa,quebaosuoyougaizaoxiangmudeyishixian。seguzhanzhoubiandiqudeguihuamubiaoshi“tongguojichenghedaorugaocengcidegongnengyetai,tigaoshenghuowenhuafayuandisegudehuoli”。jutilaijiangbaokuowudagongneng:wenhuajiaoliuheguanguanggongneng、shequshenghuofuwugongneng、chuangyichanyefuwugongneng、guojishangwufuwugongneng、shangyegongneng。seguchezhanjiqizhoubian“zhanchengyiti”dezonghekaifa,tishenglesegudexiyinli,daidonglechengshidefazhan。

7. wanshandebuxingxitong(xiliuzhanweili)

ribentongguochengshiguidaojiaotongchezhanyuzhoubianlitikongjiandezhenghe,jibenshixianlebuxingxitonghechengshiguidaojiaotongxitongdewufengxianjie。tongguodixiakongjiandeyitihuakaifajixingrentianqiaoxitong,wufengduijiechezhanzhoubianshangye、bangongsheshi,shixianwalk+railmoshi。rudongjingxiliuchezhandiqu,weilezhichengliuzaikaifadiquguojishangwuzhongxindedingwei,zaibuxingxianjieyijigonggongsheshiguihuashang,qizaiquyuzaikaifajieduanjiuguihualedaguimodixiagonggongkongjian,baokuodishangheercengbuxinglianlang。

8. wuzhangaisheshi

哒坪胎ribendechengshiguidaojiaotongchezhan,zhuzhongpeitaorenxinghuadefuwusheshi,tebieshiduicanzhanglvkedechuxinggengweizhongshi。suoyouchezhandousheyoumangdao,chezhansheshifenbushuominghezidongshoupiaojijunyoumangwenbiaozhu;chezhanneisheyouduogongnengweishengjian,youcanzhangrenshizhuanyongcesuo;weilefangbiancanzhangrenshihelaonianren,zhanneishezhiyidingshuliangdewuzhangaidianti。yunyinggongsihaihuiyaoqingchengkeyouqicanzhangchengke,duigezhongfuwusheshipingjia,tingqutamendegaijinyijian。

9. duoyanghuafuwu

weileshiyinggaofengqipangdadekeliuliang,weilemanzubutongchengkedeshengliyuxinlidexuqiu,ribenchengshiguidaojiaotongshezhiyouduoyangdeliechechexiangkegongxuanze。liru,xiatiantianqiyanre,liechewangwangdazheqianglengdekongdiao,danshiyehuidanduanpaiyijiehuojijieruolengdechexianggongtizhijiaoruoderenqunchengzuo;weileweihunvxingdeanquan,zaikeliuliangbudadeqingkuangxia,meitangliechedouzaizhongjianbuweisheyounvxingzhuanyongchexiang,gongnvshihexuelingqianertongchengzuo;weilezhaoguxinzangbingren,meijiechexiangdouyouzhuanmendexinxueguanbingrenzuoxi,zaizheixieteshuzuoxifujindechengkedoubeiyaoqiuguanbishoujidianyuan,yimianyingxiangxinzangqiboqidegongzuo;yibandechengshiguidaojiaotongdoushiquanmianjinyande,danweilezhaoguyanyinshifenyanzhongdechengke,ribenliechekaipilezhuanmendexiyanchexiang,yimanzuzheibufenchengkedexuqiu。

10. busheanjian

ribensuoyoudechengshiguidaojiaotongchezhanjunbujinxinganjian,yinweimianduimeitianjudadekeliu,ruozengjiaanjianjiangyingxiangchengkejinchuzhandesudu、gaibianchezhandeliuxian、yingxiangzhengchangdekeliuzuzhi,youbeiyugongjiaochuxingdekuaisuhebianjie。ribendeditiechezhancengjingfashengguokongbuxijihuozheanquanshigu,biru1995nian3yue20ridongjingditiedeshalinduqixijishijian,zaocheng13rensiwang、5500duorenshoushang。shijianfashenghou,zhengfujiaqianglelifagongzuohexiangguanyingjiyuandewanshan,ditiegongsizengjialeshipinshixiangtoujianbaorenyuan、tuchuweijinpingaoshishuoming、shezhitouminglajixiangdengcuoshi,danweiduiditiechezhanzengjiaanjiansheshi。

二、我国城市轨道交通发展过程中面临的问题

woguochengshiguidaojiaotongjiansheshiyushangshiji50niandaizhi70niandai,zhidaoshangshiji80niandaimo,woguojinbeijinghetianjinyouditie40km。suizheguominjingjidekuaisufazhan,duichengshiguidaojiaotongdexuqiuyefeisuzengzhang。jiezhi2019nian6yuedi,woguoleiji37gechengshitouyunchengshiguidaojiaotongxianlu6126.82km。zaixingyegaosufazhandeguochengzhong,woguochengshiguidaojiaotongyeyudaolezhuduowenti。

(一)城市轨道交通分类不清晰

genju《guowuyuanbangongtingguanyujinyibujiaqiangchengshiguidaojiaotongguihuajiansheguanlideyijian》(guobanfa〔2018〕52hao),“chengshiguidaojiaotongxitong,chuyouguidianchewaijunyingnaruchengshiguidaojiaotongjiansheguihuabinglvxingbaopichengxu,shengjifazhangaigebumenhuitongchengxiangguihuazhuguanbumen、zhufangchengxiangjianshebumenjinxingchengshiguidaojiaotongjiansheguihuachushenhou,anchengxuxiangguojiafazhangaigeweibaosongjiansheguihua。woguoshenbaojiansheditiedechengshi,qiyibangonggongcaizhengyusuanshouruyingzai300yiyuanyishang,diqushengchanzongzhizai3000yiyuanyishang,shiquchangzhurenkouzai300wanrenyishang。shenbaojiansheqingguidechengshi,qiyibangonggongcaizhengyusuanshouruyingzai150yiyuanyishang,diqushengchanzongzhizai1500yiyuanyishang,shiquchangzhurenkouzai150wanrenyishang。nijianditie、qingguixianluchuqikeyunqiangdufenbiebudiyumeirimeigongli0.7wanrenci、0.4wanrenci,yuanqikeliuguimofenbiedadaodanxianggaofengxiaoshi3wanrenciyishang、1wanrenciyishang。yishangshenbaotiaojianjianggenjujingjishehuifazhanqingkuanganchengxushishidiaozheng。”

muqian,chengshiguidaojiaotongdezhishifanduo,danshenbaochengshiguidaojiaotongdetiaojianjinfenweiditieheqingguilianglei。zaimeiyoujichuditieheqingguidemingquedingyidetiaojianxia,hennanjianggezhongzhishijiandandeguileiweiditiehuoshiqinggui,gefangzhixingxiangguanguidingshiwangwangcunzaibutonglijie。erribenduiyutiedaozhongleiyouzhejiaoqingxidefenleihemingquededingyi,youliyufenleizhidao。

(二)城市轨道交通企业财务状况普遍不佳

genjuzhongguochengshiguidaojiaotongxiehuibuwanquantongji(28gechengshi,buhanshiyukuaiguijiyouguidianche),2018nianquanguochengguijiaotongpingjundanweichegongliyunyingchengben23.8yuan,pingjundanweichegongliyunyingshouru17.2yuan,shouzhibiwei72%。qizhong,jinyouhangzhou、qingdao、shenzhen、beijing4shideshouzhibichaoguo100%,zhengtishangwoguochengguiqiyecaiwuzhuangkuangpubianbujia,xuyaozhengfudechixubutie。

woguogegechengshi(chubeijing、hangzhouheshenzhenyinrulexianggangditiewai)jibenzhiyouyigechengshiguidaojiaotongyunyingqiye,jibenxingchenglongduan。erqiedaduoshuchengshiguidaojiaotongqiyeyouzhengfuzhudao,dingyiweigonggongbumen(buyiyingliweimubiao),quefaduoyuanhuadejingying,shouruzhuyaoyikaopiaowushouru,wufafugaiyunyingchengben,zhiyouzhangqiyikaozhengfubutiecainengchixujingying。youyumeiyouyinglimubiaoqieyouzhengfubutiedoudi,chengshiguidaojiaotongqiyezaijieyueyunyingchengben、tigaoyunyingxiaolvfangmianquefajijixing,zhangciyiwang,zhengfubutiechixubiandajiangchengweicaizhengdejudafudan。

(san)chengshiguidaojiaotongpppxiangmushishibuguifan

哒坪胎youyuquefaheshideshehuitouziren、zhengcexianzhidengyuanyin,chengguixiangmuwangwangmianlinluodinandewenti。weilecushixiangmujinkuailuodi,henduochengguipppxiangmucunzaibuguifanshishidewenti。rumouchengshiditiexiangmucaiyongpppmoshi,yuedingyanqizhifugongchengkuan,qishizhiweibtmoshi;mouchengshiditiepppxiangmuyinrujijinjinxingguquantouzi,danyuedinggudinghuibao,weiminggushizhai;mouchengshiditiepppxiangmudexiangmugongsibuchengdanshizhixingyunyingfuwu,zhongjiansheqingyunying。buguifanshishidechengguipppxiangmubudanyouweicaiyongpppmoshidebenyi,erqieweidifangcaizhengzhichudailaijudafengxian。

哒坪胎(si)nanyifuzhi“guidao+wuye”moshi

哒坪胎jiyu《tudifa》,duiyujiaotongsheshijipeitaoyongdi,zhengfukeyitongguowuchanghuabodefangshipeizhijichengguiqiye,dan“wuye”xuyaozaijingyingxingyongdishangcainengkaifa。yitongguohuabofangshiqudedeyongdi,weilaimeiyoufalvyijukeyizhijiezhuanweijingyingxingyongdi。chengguiqiyeruoyaoqudejingyingxingyongdidekaifaquan,xuyaolvxingzhaopaiguachengxu。erwoguochengguiqiyecaiwuzhuangkuangjiaocha,nanyichoujidaliangxianjinjingpaitudi,jishinengchoujidaojingpaitudidezijin,danjiaogaodetudichengbenyejiweilaidekaifashouyidailaibuquedingxing。yinci,jiyumuqiandezhengcehuanjing,woguochengguiqiyehennanfuzhi“guidao+wuye”moshi。

(wu)fuwushuipingyoudaitigao

哒坪胎guoneichengshiguidaojiaotongqiyeweizhengfugonggongbumen,gengduoshiweiwanchengzhengfuxiadaderenwu,congzhidu、jizhishangmeiyouyichengkeweibendedongli,suoyizairenxinghuafangmiancunzaijiaodadebuzu,jiaoribenchajushenda。youqishigaofengqideyongjihexianliu、chezhandehuanchengbubian、yuqitajiaotongfangshixianjiebuchang、buxingbuyouhao、yuzhoubianshangyesheshijiehebuchongfen,wuzhangaisheshibuzudengfangmian,jidayingxianglechengkedechuxingpinzhihechengshiguidaojiaotongdexiyinli。

三、启示

ribentongguofazhiyindaoyubaozhang、yunyongshichangshouduan、jianchi“yirenweiben”,zaichixubuduandegaijinxia,jibenshixianlechengshiguidaojiaotongdejiankangfazhan。woguochengshiguidaojiaotongfazhanzhengmianlinzheyoushuliangxiangzhiliangzhuanbiandeguoduqi,bizherenwei,ribenchengshiguidaojiaotongjiankangfazhandejingyanduiwoguodeqishizhuyaobaokuoyixiajidian。

(一)加强城市轨道交通的立法工作

1.jinyibumingquechengshiguidaojiaotongshenpidefenleijibiaozhun,yifenleizhidaoqijiankangfazhan;

2.jiakuaippplifa,weiguidaojiaotongpppxiangmuguifanshishitigongxiangguanfalvfaguideyindaohebaozhang,shixianpppmoshi“jianshaozhengfuzhichu,tigaoyunyingxiaolv”debenyi;

哒坪胎3.jinkuaikaizhanguidaojiaotongtudikaifadezhengceyanjiu,jiadaguidaojiaotongdeziyuankaifa、rongzichuangxindezhichilidu。

(二)推进城市轨道交通的市场化

1. tongguofuyuchengshiguidaojiaotongqiye“shichangzhuti”shuxing,jiliqitigaofuwushuiping、jiangdiyunyingchengben、tigaoyunyingxiaolv,yindaochengshiguidaojiaotongyunyingqiyedezifuyingkui;

哒坪胎2. nuligoujianduoyuanyunyingzhutiyouxujingzhengdegeju,gulichengguiqiyeduifeipiaowu(guanggao、tongxin、shangye)yewudekaifahejingying,nulishixianguidaojiaotongwaibuzhengxiaoyingdeneibuhua。

(三)坚持“以人为本”的理念

哒坪胎1. yihuanjiechengshiguidaojiaotonggaofengshiduandechengkeyongjijichezhanxianliu、jianshaochengkehuanchengshijianweimude,zhelifenxijiyouxianwangwenti,tongguojubugaizaohuojiamixinxian,tongshijiehechengkedechuxingxuqiu,tongguoxinjianhuogaizao,goujianduocengciduozhishi、yunyinglinghuo、kuaijiegaoxiaodechengshiguidaojiaotongyunshuwangluo;

哒坪胎2. dalitichangchengshiguidaojiaotongyuchangguigongjiaowang、tieluwang、chengjiwangderonghe、xiediaofazhan,nuligoujianfengongmingque、xianjiefangbiandezonghegonggongjiaotongtixi;

哒坪胎3.jijijiejianriben“zhanchengyiti”、“yirenweiben”delinian,yichengshiguidaojiaotongzhandianyouqishishuniuzhandianweihexinyuzhoubianquyurongweiyitidechengshizhongxin,baokuowufengxianjiedelianxudixia、dishangjikongzhongbuxingxitong,yijibianlideshangye、shenghuosheshi,tigaochengshiguidaojiaotongdexiyinliyijichengshihuoli;zhongshiwuzhangaichuxingherenwenguanhuai,tigaochengkedechuxingpinzhi。

【参考文献】

[1] ribenguotujiaotongsheng. ribenshoudouquanchuxingbaogaoshu[r].riben.2017.

[2] yexiafeideng.ribenchengshichengshiguidaojiaotongjiansherongzimoshiyuchenggongjingyanpouxi[j].2002,23(4):126-130.

[3] sunzhuangzhideng.ribenchengshiguidaojiaotongdexiangguanzhidu[j].2002,76(4):16-19.

[4] zhangzidongdeng.woguochengshichengshiguidaojiaotongfaguitixixiangguanwentiyanjiu[r].beijing:zhongguochengshiguihuashejiyanjiuyuan,zhufanghechengxiangjianshebuditieyuqingguiyanjiuzhongxin, beijingshijichusheshitouziyouxiangongsi,2012:49-52.

哒坪胎[5] wangyilundeng. ribenchengshichengshiguidaojiaotongrenxinghuakeyunfuwudetedianyuqishi[j].2013,33:240-242.